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      Efficacy and Safety of Percutaneous Ozone Injection Around Gasserian Ganglion for the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

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          Ozone injection around Gasserian ganglion (OIAGG) has been reported to be an effective treatment for trigeminal neuralgia (TN); however, there remain areas for improvement. To overcome one of these limitations, a multicenter examination of application would be extremely helpful.


          The goal of this report was to assess the efficacy of OIAGG for refractory TN across multiple centers and to explore factors predictive of successful treatment.


          A multicenter, retrospective study.


          The study was conducted across 3 pain centers across China.

          Patients and Methods

          A total of 103 subjects from 3 pain centers were enrolled in the study. An ozone-oxygen mixture gas at a concentration of 30 µg/mL was injected into the area around the Gasserian ganglion performed under C-arm X-ray guidance. Primary outcome measures included a pain assessment using a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity scale. Clinical assessment of patients for these outcome measures was performed at pretreatment, post-treatment, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after the OIAGG.


          Successful pain relief was defined as a score within BNI grades I–IIIa. The pain relief rates at post-treatment, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after the procedure were 88.35%, 86.87%, 84.46% and 83.30%, respectively. The VAS at each observation time point was significantly different from the preoperative levels (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that previous nerve damage had a significant effect on the treatment results. No significant complications or side effects were found during or after treatment.


          This multicenter research confirms our previous single center results that OIAGG is both effective and safe for patients with TN.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Long-term outcomes of Gamma Knife radiosurgery for classic trigeminal neuralgia: implications of treatment and critical review of the literature. Clinical article.

          Few long-term studies of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) exist. The authors report their long-term experience with the use of GKS in a previously reported cohort of patients with TN that has now been followed since 1996. One hundred twelve patients with TN were treated with GKS at the University of Maryland between June 1996 and July 2001. Of these, 67% had no invasive operations for TN prior to GKS, 13% had 1, 4% had 2, and 16% had >or= 3. The right side was affected in 56% of cases, predominantly involving V2 (26%), V3 (24%), or a combination of both (18%) branches. The median age at diagnosis was 56 years, and median age at GKS was 64 years. The median prescription dose of 75 Gy (range 70-80 Gy) was delivered to the involved trigeminal nerve root entry zone. The authors assessed the degree of pain before and after GKS by using the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain scale. In total, 102 patients took the survey at least once, for a response rate of 91%. Although not found to alter the conclusions of this study, 7 cases of atypical TN were found and these patients were removed, for a total of 95 cases herein analyzed. The median follow-up was 5.6 years (range 13-115 months). Before GKS, 88% of patients categorized their pain as BNI IV or V (inadequate control or severe pain on medication), whereas the remainder described their pain as BNI III (some pain, but controlled on medication). After GKS, 64% reported a BNI score of I (no pain, no medications), 5% had BNI II (no pain, still on medication), 12% had BNI III, and 19% reported a BNI score of IV or V. The median time to response was 2 weeks (range 0-12 weeks) and the median response duration was 32 months (range 0-112 months). Eighty-one percent reported initial pain relief, and actuarial rates of freedom from treatment failure at 1, 3, 5, and 7 years were 60, 41, 34, and 22%, respectively. Response duration was significantly better for those who had no prior invasive treatment versus those in whom a previous surgical intervention had failed (32 vs 21 months, p < 0.02). New bothersome facial numbness was reported in 6% of cases. This study represents one of the longest reported median follow-up periods and actuarial results for a cohort of patients with classic TN treated with GKS. Although GKS achieves excellent rates of initial pain relief, these results suggest a steady rate of late failure, particularly among patients who had undergone prior invasive surgical treatment. Despite a higher than expected recurrence rate, GKS remains a viable treatment option, particularly for patients who have had no prior invasive procedures. Patients with recurrences can still be offered salvage therapy with either repeat GKS, microvascular decompression, or rhizotomy.
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            Intramuscular oxygen-ozone therapy in the treatment of acute back pain with lumbar disc herniation: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial of active and simulated lumbar paravertebral injection.

            Multicenter randomized, double-blind, simulated therapy-controlled trial in a cohort of patients with acute low back pain (LBP) due to lumbar disc herniation (LDH).
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              Advances in diagnosis and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia

              Various drugs and surgical procedures have been utilized for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Despite numerous available approaches, the results are not completely satisfying. The need for more contemporaneous drugs to control the pain attacks is a common experience. Moreover, a number of patients become drug resistant, needing a surgical procedure to treat the neuralgia. Nonetheless, pain recurrence after one or more surgical operations is also frequently seen. These facts reflect the lack of the precise understanding of the TN pathogenesis. Classically, it has been related to a neurovascular compression at the trigeminal nerve root entry-zone in the prepontine cistern. However, it has been evidenced that in the pain onset and recurrence, various neurophysiological mechanisms other than the neurovascular conflict are involved. Recently, the introduction of new magnetic resonance techniques, such as voxel-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging, three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography, and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences, has provided new insight about the TN pathogenesis. Some of these new sequences have also been used to better preoperatively evidence the neurovascular conflict in the surgical planning of microvascular decompression. Moreover, the endoscopy (during microvascular decompression) and the intraoperative computed tomography with integrated neuronavigation (during percutaneous procedures) have been recently introduced in the challenging cases. In the last few years, efforts have been made in order to better define the optimal target when performing the gamma knife radiosurgery. Moreover, some authors have also evidenced that neurostimulation might represent an opportunity in TN refractory to other surgical treatments. The aim of this work was to review the recent literature about the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and medical and surgical treatments, and discuss the significant advances in all these fields.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                04 May 2020
                : 13
                : 927-936
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Weifang Medical University , Weifang City 261000, Shangdong, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Pain and Sleep Medicine, Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University and Beijing Institute of Translational Medicine, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing, 100012, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine , Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
                [4 ]Department of Pain, Lanzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital , Lanzhou, 730030, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]Department of Pain, Xishuangbanna Dai Nationality Autonomous Prefecture People’s Hospital , Xishuangbanna, 666100, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jian-Xiong An Department of Anesthesiology, Pain and Sleep Medicine, Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University and Beijing Institute of Translational Medicine, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beiyuan Road 3, Beijing100012, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 138 0128 1750Fax +86 10 5952 0393 Email anjianxiong@yeah.net
                © 2020 Gao et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 6, References: 29, Pages: 10
                Original Research


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