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      Oral Manifestations in HIV-Positive Children: A Systematic Review

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          Abstract

          Background: The number of pediatric patients affected by HIV still remains high, mainly in developing countries, where the main cause of infection is vertical transmission from the mother. Even today, a large number of these children do not have access to treatment, and, without proper care, they die in the first few years of life. Objective: The aim of our review was to assess the prevalence of oral hard and soft tissue lesions in HIV-positive pediatric patients by identifying the most common manifestations and the overall impact that they may have on the children’s quality of life. Study design: A systematic review of the articles in the English language in PubMed and Scopus was conducted in March 2019 in order to identify the main epidemiological and cross-sectional studies on the topic. Results: Oral diseases are still one of the most common manifestations in HIV-positive pediatric patients, and they often represent the first form in which immunosuppression shows itself. An analysis of the literature shows that candidiasis is the most common oral lesion found in HIV-positive children. A significant incidence of gingivitis and gingival disease is also evident, though not strictly correlated to HIV infection. However, thanks to the introduction of new antiretroviral therapies, the incidence of HIV-related oral lesions is decreasing. Conclusions: An HIV-positive children care program should also include dental protocols, as oral disease negatively influences the quality of life, affecting both functional and social aspects.

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          Most cited references 40

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          The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration.

          Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarize evidence relating to efficacy and safety of health care interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, is not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users. Since the development of the QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analysis) Statement--a reporting guideline published in 1999--there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realizing these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of evaluations of health care interventions. The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review. In this Explanation and Elaboration document, we explain the meaning and rationale for each checklist item. For each item, we include an example of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature. The PRISMA Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.prisma-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
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            Classification and diagnostic criteria for oral lesions in HIV infection. EC-Clearinghouse on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection and WHO Collaborating Centre on Oral Manifestations of the Immunodeficiency Virus.

             DM Williams (1993)
            A consensus has been reached on the classification of the oral manifestations of HIV infection and their diagnostic criteria, based on presumptive and definitive criteria. The former relate to the initial clinical appearance of the lesion and the latter are often the result of special investigations. Candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, specific forms of periodontal disease [linear gingival erythema, necrotising-(ulcerative) gingivitis and necrotising(ulcerative) periodontitis], Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are strongly associated with HIV infection. Lesions less commonly associated with HIV infection and lesions seen in HIV infection, but not indicative of the disease, are also listed.
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              The Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance: updated case definitions of oral disease endpoints.

              The Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance (OHARA) is part of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG), the largest HIV clinical trials organization in the world. Its main objective is to investigate oral complications associated with HIV/AIDS as the epidemic is evolving, in particular, the effects of antiretrovirals on oral mucosal lesion development and associated fungal and viral pathogens. The OHARA infrastructure comprises: the Epidemiologic Research Unit (at the University of California San Francisco), the Medical Mycology Unit (at Case Western Reserve University) and the Virology/Specimen Banking Unit (at the University of North Carolina). The team includes dentists, physicians, virologists, mycologists, immunologists, epidemiologists and statisticians. Observational studies and clinical trials are being implemented at ACTG-affiliated sites in the US and resource-poor countries. Many studies have shared end-points, which include oral diseases known to be associated with HIV/AIDS measured by trained and calibrated ACTG study nurses. In preparation for future protocols, we have updated existing diagnostic criteria of the oral manifestations of HIV published in 1992 and 1993. The proposed case definitions are designed to be used in large-scale epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, in both US and resource-poor settings, where diagnoses may be made by non-dental healthcare providers. The objective of this article is to present updated case definitions for HIV-related oral diseases that will be used to measure standardized clinical end-points in OHARA studies, and that can be used by any investigator outside of OHARA/ACTG conducting clinical research that pertains to these end-points.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pathogens
                Pathogens
                pathogens
                Pathogens
                MDPI
                2076-0817
                31 January 2020
                February 2020
                : 9
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine and Surgery, Centre of Neuroscience of Milan, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy; moreo.giulia@ 123456gmail.com (G.M.); luca.oberti@ 123456outlook.it (L.O.)
                [2 ]Multidisciplinary Department of Medical and Dental Specialties, University of Campania-Luigi Vanvitelli, 80138 Naples, Italy; alberta.lucchese@ 123456unicampania.it (A.L.); dario.distasio@ 123456unicampania.it (D.D.S.)
                [3 ]Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy; massimo.conese@ 123456unifg.it
                [4 ]Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy; crc@ 123456unife.it
                Author notes
                [†]

                Co-first authorship.

                Article
                pathogens-09-00088
                10.3390/pathogens9020088
                7168689
                32023908
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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