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      Synthesis and cytotoxic activities of novel 4-methoxy-substituted and 5-methyl-substituted (3′ S,4′ S)-(−)- cis-khellactone derivatives that induce apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway

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          Abstract

          This study deals with the design and synthesis of a series of novel 4-methoxy-substituted and 5-methyl-substituted (3′ S,4′ S)-(−)- cis-khellactones. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. All the derivatives were subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity screening against HEPG-2 (human liver carcinoma), SGC-7901 (human gastric carcinoma), and LS174T (human colon carcinoma), by using the MTT assay. The results revealed that several of the 4-methoxy-substituted compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity. Among these, compound 12e showed the highest activity against cancer cells which 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50) values were in the range of 6.1–9.2 μM with low toxicity on normal human hepatocyte. Preliminary investigation of possible mechanisms of action of compound 12e against HEPG-2 cells indicated possible induction of apoptosis, as determined by morphological observations and Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining, in addition to apparent dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), as measured by 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethyl-imidacarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) staining in combination with the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 by Western blot analysis. Overall, the data suggest that compound 12e may be a promising potential anti-cancer agent that could act primarily by inducing apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway in human hepatoma cells.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Natural and synthetic coumarin derivatives with anti-inflammatory/ antioxidant activities.

          Several natural products with a coumarinic moiety have been reported to have multiple biological activities. It is to be expected that, in a similar way to isomeric flavonoids, coumarins might affect the formation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and influence processes involving free radical-mediated injury. Coumarin can reduce tissue edema and inflammation. Moreover coumarin and its 7-hydroxy-derivative inhibit prostaglandin biosynthesis, which involves fatty acid hydroperoxy intermediates. Natural products like esculetin, fraxetin, daphnetin and other related coumarin derivatives are recognised as inhibitors not only of the lipoxygenase and cycloxygenase enzymic systems, but also of the neutrophil-dependent superoxide anion generation. Due to the unquestionable importance of coumarin derivatives considerable efforts have been made by several investigators, to prepare new compounds bearing single substituents, or more complicated systems, including heterocyclic rings mainly at 3-, 4- and/or 7-positions. In this review we shall deal with naturally occurring or synthetically derived coumarin derivatives, which possess anti-inflammatory as well as antioxidant activities.
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            Simple coumarins and analogues in medicinal chemistry: occurrence, synthesis and biological activity.

            Coumarins, also known as benzopyrones, are present in remarkable amounts in plants, although their presence has also been detected in microorganisms and animal sources. The structural diversity found in this family of compounds led to the division into different categories, from simple coumarins to many other kinds of policyclic coumarins, such as furocoumarins and pyranocoumarins. Simple coumarins and analogues are a large class of compounds that have attracted their interest for a long time due to their biological activities: they have shown to be useful as antitumoural, anti-HIV agents and as CNS-active compounds. Furthermore, they have been reported to have multiple biological activities (anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory), although all these properties have not been evaluated systematically. In addition, their enzyme inhibition properties, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities are other foremost topics of this field of research. The present work is to survey the information published or abstracted from 1990 till 2003, which is mainly related to the occurrence, synthesis and biological importance of simple coumarins and some analogues, such as biscoumarins and triscoumarins. Data are also highlighted, concerning the development of new synthetic strategies that could help in drug design and in the work on SAR or QSAR.
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              Recent progress in the development of coumarin derivatives as potent anti-HIV agents.

              Numerous plant-derived compounds have been evaluated for inhibitory effects against HIV replication, and some coumarins have been found to inhibit different stages in the HIV replication cycle. This review article describes recent progress in the discovery, structure modification, and structure-activity relationship studies of potent anti-HIV coumarin derivatives. A dicamphanoyl-khellactone (DCK) analog, which was discovered and developed in our laboratory, and calanolide A are currently in preclinical studies and clinical trials, respectively. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                23 June 2017
                : 11
                : 1891-1904
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Shanxi Medical University
                [2 ]College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taiyuan, Shanxi, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Taigang Liang; Qingshan Li, Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Shanxi Medical University, No 56, Xinjian Nan Road, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 351 469 0322, Email ltaigang@ 123456163.com ; sxlqs2012@ 123456163.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-11-1891
                10.2147/DDDT.S131753
                5491701
                © 2017 Chen et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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