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      Warlordism in China

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      a
      Review of African Political Economy
      Review of African Political Economy
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            Abstract

            The Reviewis pleased to include this succinct summary of the elements defining, and the debates surrounding, the warlord phenomenon in China's history. Dr Roberts assesses the various ways in which the ‘classical’ warlordism of the period from 1916 to 1928 has been understood and interpreted. The focus is on the collapse of central state authority and the rise of provincial or regional military rulers exercising considerable power and autonomy over the locality. The paper presents a lucid account of how the origins of warlordism have been explained, what are considered to be the main characteristics of warlords and warlordism and what their effects were on the society and polity of China. A number of points raise interesting questions about the extent to which the concept might usefully be applied to some current problems in Africa. These include the decay of nationalism into regionalism and sectarianism; the extent to which such provincial power centres link up with foreign interests; the disintegration of the military hierarchy and the rise of lower‐ranked officer strata; and the burdens imposed on civil society by the extortion and violence occasioned by warlordism and by the obstacles it places in the way of political solutions to problems. The paper concludes with a brief consideration of alternative possibilities that were thrown up in China by the ‘space’ created by the decline of political control which warlordism reflected and perpetuated.

            Content

            Author and article information

            Journal
            crea20
            CREA
            Review of African Political Economy
            Review of African Political Economy
            0305-6244
            1740-1720
            1989
            : 16
            : 45-46
            : 26-33
            Affiliations
            a Department of History , Huddersfield Polytechnic
            Article
            8703823 Review of African Political Economy, Vol. 16, No. 45-46, 1889, pp. 26-33
            10.1080/03056248908703823
            5d6a0d2b-5fa5-4f0f-932e-8cde83821d88

            All content is freely available without charge to users or their institutions. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission of the publisher or the author. Articles published in the journal are distributed under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

            History
            Page count
            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, References: 26, Pages: 8
            Categories
            Original Articles

            Sociology,Economic development,Political science,Labor & Demographic economics,Political economics,Africa

            Bibliographic note

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            2. Fairbank J.K.. , ed. 1983. . “‘The warlord era; politics and militarism under the Peking government, 1916–28’. ”. In The Cambridge History of China, Vol.12, Republican China 1912–1949 . , Cambridge University Press. .

            3. Ch'en Jerome. . 1968. . ‘Defining Chinese warlords and their factions’. . Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies . , 31.3;

            4. Ch'en Jerome. . 1979. . The Military‐Gentry Coalition: China under the Warlords . , University of Toronto – York University Joint Centre on Modern East Asia. .

            5. Ch'i Hsi‐sheng. . 1976. . Warlord Politics in China 1916–1928 . , Stanford University Press. .

            6. Gillin Donald G.. 1967. . ‘Review Article: Warlordism in modern China’. . Journal of Asian Studies . , Vol. 26.3:

            7. Hsieh Winston W.. 1975. . ‘The economics of warlordism’. . Chinese Republican Studies Newsletter . , Vol. 1.1:

            8. Lary Diana. . 1985. . Warlord Soldiers 1911–1937 . , Cambridge University Press. .

            9. Pye Lucien. . 1971. . Warlord Politics . , Praeger. .

            10. Schiffrin H.Z.. 1973. . ‘Militarism and politics in China. Is the warlord model pertinent?’. . Asia Quarterly . , Vol. 3:

            11. Wang Gung‐wu. . 1968. . “‘Comments’. ”. In China in Crisis . , Edited by: Ho P.T. and Tsou Tang. . Vol. Vol. I. , University of Chicago Press. .

            12. MacKinnon Stephen R.. 1973. . ‘The Peiyang Army, Yuan Shih‐k'ai, and the origins of modern Chinese warlordism’. . Journal of Asian Studies . , 32.3;

            13. Michael Franz. . 1964. . “‘Introduction’. ”. In Li Hung‐Chang and the Huai Army . , Edited by: Spector Stanley. . University of Washington Press. .

            14. Whitson William W.. 1969. . ‘The field army in Chinese communist military polities’. . The China Quarterly . , Vol. 37:

            15. Chang J.K.. 1969. . Industrial Development in Pre‐communist China: A Quantitative Analysis . , Aldine Press. .

            16. Ch'en Jerome. . 1972. . Yuan Shih‐k'ai . , 2nd. edition. , Stanford University Press. .

            17. Gillin Donald G.. 1967. . Warlord: Yen Hsi‐shan in Shasi Province 1911–1949 . , Princeton University Press. .

            18. Hsieh Winston. . 1962. . The ideas and ideals of a warlord: Ch'en Chiung‐ming (1878–1933). . Harvard Papers on China . , Vol. 16:

            19. McCormack Gavan. . 1977. . Chang Tso‐lin in Northeast China 1911–1928 . , Stanford University Press. .

            20. Sheridan James E.. 1966. . Chinese Warlord: The Career of Feng Yu‐hsiang . , Stanford University Press. .

            21. Wou Odoric Y.K.. 1978. . Militarism in Modern China: The Career of Wu P'ei‐fu, 1916–39 . , Australian National University Press. .

            22. Forbes Andrew D.W.. 1986. . Warlords and Muslims in Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949 . , Cambridge University Press. .

            23. Kapp Robert A.. 1973. . Szechwan and the Chinese Republic: Provincial Militarism and Central Power 1911–1938 . , Yale University Press. .

            24. Lary Diana. . 1974. . Region and Nation: The Kwangsi Clique in Chinese Politics 1925–1937 . , Cambridge University Press. .

            25. Sutton Donald. . 1980. . Provincial Militarism and the Chinese Republic: The Yunnan Army 1905–25 . , University of Michigan Press. .

            26. Lary Diana. . 1980. . ‘Warlord studies’. . Modern China . , 6.4;

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