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      Sodium polyphosphate and polyethylenimine enhance the antimicrobial activities of plant essential oils

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          ABSTRACT

          Plant extracts have been used for millennia for treatment of disease, with much recent interest focusing on the antimicrobial activities of plant essential oils (EOs). Although EOs are active against common microbial pathogens, their effective use as topical, environmental, or food antimicrobials will require EO-based formulations with enhanced antimicrobial activities. In this study, two polyionic compounds, sodium polyphosphate (polyP, a polyanion) and polyethylenimine (PEI, a polycation), were evaluated for their abilities to enhance the antimicrobial activities of six EOs against the human pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Minnesota, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. EOs tested were cinnamon, clove, regular and redistilled oregano, and two types of thyme oil. EOs were examined via disk diffusion and broth microdilution, either alone or in the presence of subinhibitory levels of polyP or PEI. Both polyP and PEI were found to be effective enhancers of EO activity against all strains examined, and calculation of fractional inhibitory indices for select EO/organism pairings demonstrated that true synergy was possible with this enhancement approach. Experiments with a deep-rough strain of S. Minnesota probed the role of the outer membrane in both intrinsic resistance to EOs and enhancement by polyions. The use of polyP and PEI for boosting the antimicrobial activities of EOs may eventually facilitate the development of more effective EO-based antimicrobial treatments for use in applications such as wound treatment, surface disinfection, or as generally recognized as safe antimicrobials for use in foods or on food contact surfaces.

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          Most cited references 36

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          The phenolic hydroxyl group of carvacrol is essential for action against the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus.

          The natural antimicrobial compound carvacrol shows a high preference for hydrophobic phases. The partition coefficients of carvacrol in both octanol-water and liposome-buffer phases were determined (3.64 and 3.26, respectively). Addition of carvacrol to a liposomal suspension resulted in an expansion of the liposomal membrane. Maximum expansion was observed after the addition of 0.50 micromol of carvacrol/mg of L-alpha-phosphatidylethanolamine. Cymene, a biological precursor of carvacrol which lacks a hydroxyl group, was found to have a higher preference for liposomal membranes, thereby causing more expansion. The effect of cymene on the membrane potential was less pronounced than the effect of carvacrol. The pH gradient and ATP pools were not affected by cymene. Measurement of the antimicrobial activities of compounds similar to carvacrol (e.g., thymol, cymene, menthol, and carvacrol methyl ester) showed that the hydroxyl group of this compound and the presence of a system of delocalized electrons are important for the antimicrobial activity of carvacrol. Based on this study, we hypothesize that carvacrol destabilizes the cytoplasmic membrane and, in addition, acts as a proton exchanger, thereby reducing the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane. The resulting collapse of the proton motive force and depletion of the ATP pool eventually lead to cell death.
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            Poly(ethylenimine) and its role in gene delivery.

            Since the first published examination of poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) as a gene delivery vehicle, there has been a flurry of research aimed at this polycation and its role in gene therapy. Here we will briefly review PEI chemistry and the characterization of PEI/DNA complexes used for gene delivery. Additionally, we will note various PEI transfection considerations and examine findings involving other polycationic gene delivery vehicles used with cellular targeting ligands. The current state of our knowledge regarding the mechanism of PEI/DNA transfection will also be discussed. Finally, we will survey toxicity issues related to PEI transfection.
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              Disclosure of the mycobacterial outer membrane: cryo-electron tomography and vitreous sections reveal the lipid bilayer structure.

              The cell walls of mycobacteria form an exceptional permeability barrier, and they are essential for virulence. They contain extractable lipids and long-chain mycolic acids that are covalently linked to peptidoglycan via an arabinogalactan network. The lipids were thought to form an asymmetrical bilayer of considerable thickness, but this could never be proven directly by microscopy or other means. Cryo-electron tomography of unperturbed or detergent-treated cells of Mycobacterium smegmatis embedded in vitreous ice now reveals the native organization of the cell envelope and its delineation into several distinct layers. The 3D data and the investigation of ultrathin frozen-hydrated cryosections of M. smegmatis, Myobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin, and Corynebacterium glutamicum identified the outermost layer as a morphologically symmetrical lipid bilayer. The structure of the mycobacterial outer membrane necessitates considerable revision of the current view of its architecture. Conceivable models are proposed and discussed. These results are crucial for the investigation and understanding of transport processes across the mycobacterial cell wall, and they are of particular medical relevance in the case of pathogenic mycobacteria.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                SOR-LIFE
                ScienceOpen Research
                ScienceOpen
                2199-1006
                29 December 2016
                : 0 (ID: )
                : 0
                : 1-13
                Affiliations
                Rapid Microbial Detection and Control Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author’s e-mail address: byron@ 123456iastate.edu
                Article
                201702
                10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-LIFE.Z72TP0.v1
                © 2017 Wright and Brehm-Stecher

                This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 3, References: 41, Pages: 13
                Product
                Categories
                Original article

                General agriculture, Microbiology & Virology

                Natural antimicrobials

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