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            Abstract

            Public health security in human societies is placed under enormous strain by infectious disease epidemics. According to the WHO, COVID-19 and Mpox remain on the list of PHEICs, whereas cholera, dengue, and other contagious diseases remain endemic in several countries and regions. Data on prevalent infectious diseases have been collected worldwide in recent weeks, and may provide new ideas for international collaboration in public health.

            Main article text

            INTRODUCTION

            Both traditional and new infectious diseases in recent years have challenged global health. Conventional contagious diseases have not been eliminated but instead have intensified. To monitor and analyze infectious disease cases worldwide, tracking and prediction of the development of infectious diseases are required. From 2023, the number of COVID-19 cases has significantly decreased. The subsequent spread of COVID-19 may fluctuate. The emergence of new strains, climate change, and large-scale population flow will affect the record period and virus transmission. Currently, COVID-19 persists, and the current epidemic infection status cannot be considered to indicate the eradication of the disease. Recently, the rate of positive influenza virus tests has continued to rise in many countries, thus indicating that the epidemic form of influenza virus is increasing, and active prevention and control measures are required. Global health continues to be affected by infectious diseases such as Mpox, dengue, and chikungunya.

            By using Shusi Tech’s Global Epidemic Information Monitoring System, we analyzed the prevalence of infectious diseases worldwide and have described other types of infectious diseases with relatively low incidence from January 24, 2023 to February 24, 2023, in the greatest detail possible (Fig 1).

            FIGURE 1 |

            Worldwide distribution of infectious diseases from January 24, 2023 to February 23, 2023.

            COVID-19

            As a result of the Chinese government’s changes in prevention and control policies for COVID-19, the international community has officially entered the post-pandemic era. After an exponential rise in SARS-CoV-2 infections in China, the number of cases has fallen rapidly. However, the international community continues to see a surge in new infectious cases (Fig 2). After the pandemic, international cooperation will play a major role in public health. The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2, despite carrying many mutations, is currently the most prevalent virus variant spreading.

            FIGURE 2 |

            Statistics on new confirmed cases and deaths due to COVID-19 worldwide daily. A, C: New cases and deaths due to COVID-19, reported daily on every continent (the primary coordinate on the left is the columnar ordinate, and the secondary coordinate on the right is the broken line ordinate). B, D: Continent-specific proportions of new confirmed cases and deaths due to COVID-19 (January 24, 2023 to February 23, 2023; data were obtained from the World Health Organization website: https://COVID19.who.int/).

            MPOX

            Because the Mpox virus is transmitted primarily from animals to humans, and chains of human-to-human transmission are limited, cases of MPOX infections have frequently been detected near tropical rainforests, which are home a variety of animals capable of carrying the virus [1]. Global attention has been paid to MPOX since the WHO declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). Nevertheless, monkeypox viral infections have decreased in recent years. In many countries, monkeypox outbreaks have subsided (Table 1). Some West African and Central African countries continue to report cases. As reported by Nature, the WHO’s director-general has stated that MPOX remains a public-health emergency [2].

            TABLE 1 |

            Worldwide Mpox cases reported between 23/01/2023 and 24/02/2023.

            Record periodLocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2023Data source
            04/02/2023–04/02/2023Hong Kong1HK Government News
            13/06/2022–31/01/2023Chile1411 (2)WHO
            19/05/2022–25/01/2023Spain7518 (3)WHO
            23/01/2023–29/01/2023Japan67Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases
            30/01/2023–05/02/2023210
            06/02/2023–12/02/2023111
            01/01/2023–25/01/2023Nigeria775 (7)WHO
            28/05/2022–31/01/2023Mexico3768 (4)WHO
            26/06/2022–25/01/2023Peru3723 (15)WHO
            18/05/2022–01/02/2023USA30123 (28)U.S. CDC
            23/06/2022–25/01/2023Columbia4066WHO
            01/01/2022–25/01/2023Congo348WHO
            20/05/2022–25/01/2023France4128WHO
            08/06/2022–30/01/2023Brazil10745 (15)Brazil Ministry of Health
            21/02/2023–21/02/2023Paraguay1Outbreak News Today

            CHOLERA

            Globally, cholera continues to be a major cause of outbreaks, particularly in areas with inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene services. Earlier this year, the Euphrates River in Syria was contaminated, thus causing an outbreak in Africa. Pollution is partly due to damage to water treatment systems caused by war and earthquakes. In addition, as shown in Table 2, Haiti continues to experience cholera outbreaks.

            TABLE 2 |

            Worldwide cholera cases reported between 23/01/2023 and 24/02/2023.

            Record periodLocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2023Data source
            11/04/2022–05/02/2023Zambia1934 (18)Outbreak News Today
            01/01/2023–29/01/2023Somalia916 (1)916WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            03/03/2022–03/02/2023Malawi36943 (1210)Outbreak News Today
            30/09/2022–24/01/2023Haiti26435 (511)WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            30/09/2022–12/02/202331032 (594)
            25/01/2023–31/01/20231311 (49)
            07/02/2023–12/02/20231383 (34)
            01/01/2023–04/02/2023Democratic Republic of the Congo4386 (16)4386WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            27/08/2022–26/01/2023Ethiopia1027 (28)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            29/01/2023–04/02/202391083 (28)

            DENGUE

            Known as a mosquito-borne disease, dengue virus is one of four types of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses (DENV-1 to DENV-4) [3]. As shown in Table 3, the greatest burden of the disease was reported in tropical and subtropical regions, such as Singapore and Malaysia. Singapore has experienced dengue epidemics in multi-annual cycles since dengue outbreaks were first documented in 1901, owing to changes in the predominant serotype [4].

            TABLE 3 |

            Worldwide dengue cases reported between 23/01/2023 and 24/02/2023.

            Record periodLocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2023Data source
            29/01/2023–04/02/2023Taiwan, China18China Taiwan Disease Control Agency
            05/02/2023–11/02/2023311
            22/01/2023–28/01/2023Singapore1861019Health Ministry of Singapore
            29/01/2023–04/02/20232241242
            01/01/2023–12/02/20231469
            05/02/2023–11/02/2023219
            12/02/2023–18/02/20231491609
            01/01/2022–31/01/2023Thailand26832683Thailand Ministry of Health
            28/01/2023–03/02/2023Sri Lanka1150Sri Lanka Ministry of Health
            01/01/2023–17/02/2023Peru11585 (16)Outbreak News Today
            01/01/2023–31/01/2023Bangladesh566 (6)Bangladesh Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
            01/01/2023–22/02/2023Malaysia16427 (9)Outbreak News Today
            22/01/2023–28/01/2023Korea15Korea CDC
            29/01/2023–04/02/202319
            05/02/2023–11/02/2023112
            01/01/2023–28/01/2023Haiti27099 (560)WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01/2023–28/01/2023Philippines7804 (22)Philippine Ministry of Health
            01/02/2023–19/02/2023France13Outbreak News Today
            01/01/2023–04/02/2023Bolivia3437 (13)Outbreak News Today
            01/01/2023–08/02/20234230 (17)4230 (17)
            01/01/2023–14/02/20236453 (26)6453 (26)
            01/01/2023–22/02/20238909 (29)8909 (29)
            22/01/2023–28/01/2023Paraguay2995Paraguay Health Ministry
            29/01/2023–04/02/202325169
            01/02/2023–21/02/2023203
            29/01/2023–04/02/2023Afghanistan61304 (2)WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean
            05/02/2023–11/02/202371311 (2)

            MEASLES

            Measles is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the measles virus, which is transmitted primarily via respiratory droplets and aerosols [5]. As shown in Table 4, most new cases were reported in South Sudan, where immunization campaigns are limited. In Paraguay, the first case of measles since 1998 was reported on January 23, 2023.

            TABLE 4 |

            Worldwide measles cases reported between 23/01/2023 and 24/02/2023.

            Record periodLocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2023Data source
            01/01/2023–23/01/2023Paraguay11WHO
            01/01/2023–01/02/2023South Sudan4339 (46)WHO
            01/01/2023–13/01/2023New Zealand1Outbreak News Today
            01/01/2023–18/02/2023Australia8Outbreak News Today
            20/02/2023–20/02/2023Canada1Outbreak News Today
            24/01/2023–17/02/2023South Africa4Outbreak News Today

            INFLUENZA

            Influenza viruses can be transmitted through the respiratory tract or through direct contact. According to World Health Organization statistics, 1 billion people have been estimated to contract seasonal influenza each year, of whom 650,000 die (nearly one death due to influenza every 49 seconds). As shown in Table 5, influenza is prevalent primarily in European and American countries, such as the United States and France. Data indicate that influenza poses a deadly threat. Many parts of the world, particularly Southeast Asia, are experiencing a co-epidemic of influenza with COVID-19. Children have a significantly higher proportion of co-infection and more severe outcomes of co-infection than adults. Consequently, COVID-19 and influenza continue to pose a risk of co-infection this season. The transmission of influenza virus has been decreased by non-pharmacological interventions, such as long-term mask wearing and social distancing. Non-drug interventions may lead to a decrease in human immunity to influenza viruses, thereby increasing the susceptibility of influenza viruses.

            TABLE 5 |

            Worldwide influenza cases reported between 22/01/2023 and 12/02/2023.

            Record periodLocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodData source
            22/01/2023–04/02/2023Canada575Public Health Agency of Canada
            29/01/2023–11/02/2023U.S.A.2262U.S. CDC
            02/01/2023–12/02/2023France8993World Health Organization
            02/01/2023–12/02/2023Denmark7756World Health Organization

            CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS

            Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been identified in more than 110 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Among these regions, Asia and America are most affected by chikungunya fever. The similar symptoms of chikungunya and dengue or Zika infections may result in misdiagnosis. Currently, no specific antiviral drug treatment or commercial vaccine is available to protect against CHIKV viral infection. In some countries, polio has been reported to have spread over the past month. It is worth noting that the number of polio cases is steadily increasing in Paraguay (Table 6).

            TABLE 6 |

            Worldwide chikungunya virus cases reported between 01/01/2023 and 21/02/2023.

            Record periodLocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases (deaths) reported since 1/1/2023Data source
            01/01/2023–11/02/2023Brazil5138WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            01/01/2023–08/02/2023Malaysia72Outbreak News Today
            18/02/2023–18/02/2023Argentina3Outbreak News Today
            29/01/2023–21/02/2023Paraguay11864Outbreak News Today
            29/01/2023–04/02/2023Peru53143WHO Regional Office for the Americas

            POLIO

            As shown in Table 7, countries such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Chad, the Central African Republic, and Indonesia have reported polio cases. Polo transmission is increasing in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and may be a matter of concern. The WHO has estimated that one of every 200 infections may result in irreversible paralysis. Five to ten percent of people who are paralyzed die when their breathing muscles become immobile. Under-immunized areas can experience polio outbreaks, and polio continues to spread in parts of Africa, Asia, and Europe. The disease might potentially return if the goal of eliminating polio is not achieved.

            TABLE 7 |

            Worldwide polio cases reported between 25/01/2023 and 08/02/2023.

            Record periodLocationCumulative cases
            Data source
            Reported during record period
            25/01/2023–31/01/2023Central African Republic1Global Polio Website
            25/01/2023–31/01/2023Yemen1
            25/01/2023–31/01/2023Indonesia1
            25/01/2023–31/01/2023Nigeria1
            25/01/2023–14/02/2023Chad16
            01/02/2023–07/02/2023Algeria1
            01/02/2023–07/02/2023Mali1
            01/02/2023–14/02/2023Democratic Republic of the Congo28
            08/02/2023–14/02/2023Nigeria1
            08/02/2023–14/02/2023Indonesia1

            HEPATITIS C

            Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus. This liver disease is characterized by inflammation and necrosis which caused by infectious factors. Hepatitis C virus is an RNA virus present in the liver cells and blood of infected people. The hepatitis C virus causes the body to mount an immune response, thereby causing damage to liver cells and inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis C infection can cause chronic liver inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis. Approximately 15% of people with chronic hepatitis C develop liver cancer, which is life-threatening. Because HCV symptoms and signs are unclear in patients, early detection is the only way to diagnose HCV infection. In some Asian countries, hepatitis C cases have been reported over the past month (Table 8).

            TABLE 8 |

            Worldwide hepatitis C cases reported between 29/01/2023 and 11/02/2023.

            Record periodLocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases
            Data source
            Reported since 1/1/2022
            29/01/2023–11/02/2023Taiwan, China2569Taiwan Disease Control Agency of China
            05/02/2023–11/02/2023Korea133878Korea CDC

            OTHER INFECTIOUS DISEASES

            In the past month, some infectious diseases have shown regional epidemiological trends. Several epidemic diseases are listed in Table 9, including Nipah virus disease, Japanese encephalitis, leishmaniasis, anthrax, amoebic dysentery, malaria, scarlet fever, hand-foot-mouth disease, Salmonella, hantavirus, pneumococcal, mumps, Zika virus, Leptospira, tuberculosis, Nipah virus, diphtheria, and legionella.

            TABLE 9 |

            Worldwide cases of other infectious diseases reported between 01/01/2022 and 23/02/2023.

            Record periodLocationCumulative cases (deaths) reported during record periodCumulative cases
            Data source
            Reported since 1/1/2022
            Epidemic encephalitis B
            18/02/2023–18/02/2023India5ProMED-mail
            Leishmaniasis
            01/01/2023–04/02/2023Paraguay13Outbreak News Today
            Anthracnose Bulgaria1ProMED-mail
            06/02/2023–06/02/2023
            Amoebic dysentery Bulgaria1ProMED-mail
            05/02/2023–11/02/2023Taiwan, China733Taiwan Disease Control Agency of China
            Malaria
            01/01/2023–12/02/2023Japan3
            29/01/2023–04/02/2023Korea15Korea CDC
            Scarlet fever
            01/01/2023–31/01/2023Thailand48ProMED-mail
            16/01/2023–12/02/2023U.K.6049U.K. Health and Safety Executive
            Meningitis
            01/10/2022–04/02/2023Nigeria398 (38)WHO Regional Office for Africa
            Hand foot and mouth disease
            01/01/2023–02/04/2023Philippines3250Outbreak News Today
            01/01/2023–31/01/2023Thailand2821
            01/01/2023–01/02/2023U.S.A.42Outbreak News Today
            Salmonella
            29/01/2023–04/02/2023U.S.A.2191961U.S. CDC
            Hantavirus
            01/01/2023–15/02/2023Panama4 (1)ProMED-mail
            01/12/2022–15/02/2023Chile2ProMED-mail
            05/02/2023–11/02/2023Taiwan, China1ProMED-mail
            Pneumococcus
            29/01/2023–11/02/2023Taiwan, China1868Taiwan Disease Control Agency of China
            29/01/2023–04/02/2023U.S.A.2011807U.S. CDC
            30/01/2023–05/02/2023Japan19166Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases
            Mumps
            29/01/2023–11/02/2023Korea220673Korea CDC
            Zika virus
            01/01/2023–04/02/2023Peru74ProMED-mail
            01/01/2023–04/02/2023Colombia46WHO Regional Office for the Americas
            Leptospira
            28/01/2023–10/02/2023Sri Lanka95726Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka
            Tuberculosis
            01/01/2023–31/01/2023Thailand888 (1)ProMED-mail
            23/01/2023–05/02/2023Japan3731936Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases
            23/01/2023–05/02/2023Korea7382270Korea CDC
            Nipah virus
            01/01/2023–20/02/2023Bangladesh11 (8)World Health Organization
            Invasive group A streptococcus
            01/01/2023–31/01/2023Denmark99EU CDC
            01/09/2022–01/02/2023Croatia15 (4)EU CDC
            Diphtheria
            01/01/2023–29/01/2023France127 (17)EU CDC
            01/01/2023–08/02/2023Dominican Republic4 (1)ProMED-mail
            23/01/2023–05/02/2023Nigeria56 (4)Nigeria CDC
            25/01/2023–02/02/2023Germany31147
            29/01/2023–05/02/2023Afghanistan131082
            Legionella
            05/02/2023–11/02/2023Hong Kong, China27Center for Health Protection, Hong Kong, China
            29/01/2023–04/02/2023U.S.A.16236U.S. CDC
            29/01/2023–04/02/2023Korea738Korea CDC
            29/01/2023–11/02/2023Taiwan, China1267Taiwan Disease Control Agency of China
            30/01/2023–05/02/2023Japan13126Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases

            CONCLUSION

            China has entered the post-epidemic era by adjusting its COVID-19 prevention and control policies. New cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were found primarily in the Western Pacific, Europe, and the Americas. The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 has been reported to be the predominant variant spreading. To prevent SARS-CoV-2 from mutating, more effective strategies should be implemented. According to a Nature article, Mpox was predicted to be removed from the list of PHEIC, owing to a decreasing number of new cases reported. However, no vaccine is available to prevent monkeypox viral infection. Therefore, monkeypox virus surveillance should not be relaxed. Several countries and areas lack water, sanitation, and hygiene services because of wars and natural disasters. Consequently, combatting infectious diseases in this environment is difficult. To curb the international epidemic in advance, the international community should provide support to these countries. Given the current prevalence of infectious diseases in many countries, monitoring and collecting data on global outbreaks will alert the international community to ongoing outbreaks.

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            2. Kozlov M. WHO may soon end mpox emergency - but outbreaks rage in Africa. Nature. 2023. Vol. 614(7949):600–601

            3. Guzman MG, Gubler DJ, Izquierdo A, Martinez E, Halstead SB. Dengue infection. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2016. Vol. 2:16055

            4. Rajarethinam J, Ang LW, Ong J, Ycasas J, Hapuarachchi HC, Yap G, et al.. Dengue in Singapore from 2004 to 2016: cyclical epidemic patterns dominated by serotypes 1 and 2. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018. Vol. 99(1):204–210

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Zoonoses
            Zoonoses
            Zoonoses
            Compuscript (Shannon, Ireland )
            2737-7466
            2737-7474
            22 March 2023
            : 3
            : 1
            : e987
            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shenzhen Second People’s Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Health Science Center, Shenzhen, China
            [2 ]School of Computer and Information Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen, Fujian, China
            [3 ]Shenzhen Data Thinking Corporation, Shenzhen, China
            Author notes
            *Corresponding authors: E-mail: ericheshi@ 123456163.com , Tel: +86-13538047813 (SH); hiwenjin@ 123456vip.qq.com , Tel: +86-13332997646 (WY); wanhood@ 123456163.com , Tel: +86-13602601597 (DG)

            #Dongliang Liu and Guodan Li contributed equally to this work.

            Article
            10.15212/ZOONOSES-2023-1002
            48d4d9e4-73f5-4840-ad06-cadd31e221e3
            Copyright © 2023 The Authors.

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            History
            : 11 March 2023
            : 12 March 2023
            : 13 March 2023
            Page count
            Figures: 2, Tables: 9, References: 5, Pages: 8
            Funding
            Funded by: National Key Research and Development Program of China
            Award ID: 2022YFC2302700
            Funded by: Guangdong Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: 2021A1515220084
            Funded by: Guangdong Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: 2020B1111160001
            Funded by: Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: ZDSYS20210623092001003
            Funded by: Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: GJHZ20200731095604013
            Funded by: Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: JSGG20220301090003004
            Funded by: Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation
            Award ID: GJHZ20210705142007022
            Dayong Gu and Wenjin Yu conceived and designed the project. The data were collected by Dongliang Liu, Guodan Li, Taihan Li, and Yi Luo. The manuscript was written by Dongliang Liu and Guodan Li. Shiping He revised the manuscript. Dayong Gu supervised the study. This research was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2022YFC2302700), Guangdong Science and Technology Foundation (Nos. 2021A1515220084 and 2020B1111160001), and Shenzhen Science and Technology Foundation (ZDSYS20210623092001003, GJHZ20200731095604013, JSGG20220301090003004, and GJHZ20210705142007022).
            Categories
            Short Communication

            Parasitology,Animal science & Zoology,Molecular biology,Public health,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
            dengue,COVID-19,infectious disease

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