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      Anticoagulants, Antiplatelets, and Thrombolytics 

      Heparin and Low-Molecular Weight Heparins in Thrombosis and Beyond

      Humana Press

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          Prognosis of cancers associated with venous thromboembolism.

          Little is known about the prognosis of cancer discovered during or after an episode of venous thromboembolism. We linked the Danish National Registry of Patients, the Danish Cancer Registry, and the Danish Mortality Files to obtain data on the survival of patients who received a diagnosis of cancer at the same time as or after an episode of venous thromboembolism. Their survival was compared with that of patients with cancer who did not have venous thromboembolism (control patients), who were matched in terms of type of cancer, age, sex, and year of diagnosis. Of 668 patients who had cancer at the time of an episode of deep venous thromboembolism, 44.0 percent of those with data on the spread of disease (563 patients) had distant metastasis, as compared with 35.1 percent of 5371 control patients with data on spread (prevalence ratio, 1.26; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.40). In the group with cancer at the time of venous thromboembolism, the one-year survival rate was 12 percent, as compared with 36 percent in the control group (P<0.001), and the mortality ratio for the entire follow-up period was 2.20 (95 percent confidence interval, 2.05 to 2.40). Patients in whom cancer was diagnosed within one year after an episode of venous thromboembolism had a slightly increased risk of distant metastasis at the time of the diagnosis (prevalence ratio, 1.23 [95 percent confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.40]) and a relatively low rate of survival at one year (38 percent, vs. 47 percent in the control group; P<0.001). Cancer diagnosed at the same time as or within one year after an episode of venous thromboembolism is associated with an advanced stage of cancer and a poor prognosis.
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            Nitric oxide decreases cytokine-induced endothelial activation. Nitric oxide selectively reduces endothelial expression of adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines.

            To test the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) limits endothelial activation, we treated cytokine-stimulated human saphenous vein endothelial cells with several NO donors and assessed their effects on the inducible expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). In a concentration-dependent manner, NO inhibited interleukin (IL)-1 alpha-stimulated VCAM-1 expression by 35-55% as determined by cell surface enzyme immunoassays and flow cytometry. This inhibition was paralleled by reduced monocyte adhesion to endothelial monolayers in nonstatic assays, was unaffected by cGMP analogues, and was quantitatively similar after stimulation by either IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha), or bacterial lipopolysaccharide. NO also decreased the endothelial expression of other leukocyte adhesion molecules (E-selectin and to a lesser extent, intercellular adhesion molecule-1) and secretable cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8). Inhibition of endogenous NO production by L-N-monomethyl-arginine also induced the expression of VCAM-1, but did not augment cytokine-induced VCAM-1 expression. Nuclear run-on assays, transfection studies using various VCAM-1 promoter reporter gene constructs, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that NO represses VCAM-1 gene transcription, in part, by inhibiting NF-kappa B. We propose that NO's ability to limit endothelial activation and inhibit monocyte adhesion may contribute to some of its antiatherogenic and antiinflammatory properties within the vessel wall.
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              Antimetastatic effects associated with platelet reduction.

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                Author and book information

                Book
                978-1-60761-802-7
                978-1-60761-803-4
                2010
                10.1007/978-1-60761-803-4
                Book Chapter
                2010
                June 10 2010
                : 109-132
                10.1007/978-1-60761-803-4_3

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