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      Acid Proteases: Structure, Function, and Biology 

      Human Cathepsin D

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      Springer US

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          The interaction of alpha 2-macroglobulin with proteinases. Characteristics and specificity of the reaction, and a hypothesis concerning its molecular mechanism.

          1. alpha(2)-Macroglobulin is known to bind and inhibit a number of serine proteinases. We show that it binds thiol and carboxyl proteinases, and there is now reason to believe that alpha(2)-macroglobulin can bind essentially all proteinases. 2. Radiochemically labelled trypsin, chymotrypsin, cathepsin B1 and papain are bound by alpha(2)-macroglobulin in an approximately equimolar ratio. Equimolar binding was confirmed for trypsin by activesite titration. 3. Pretreatment of alpha(2)-macroglobulin with a saturating amount of one proteinase prevented the subsequent binding of another. We conclude that each molecule of alpha(2)-macroglobulin is able to react with one molecule of proteinase only. 4. alpha(2)-Macroglobulin did not react with exopeptidases, non-proteolytic hydrolases or inactive forms of endopeptidases. 5. The literature on binding and inhibition of proteinases by alpha(2)-macroglobulin is reviewed, and from consideration of this and our own work several general characteristics of the interaction can be discerned. 6. A model is proposed for the molecular mechanism of the interaction of alpha(2)-macroglobulin with proteinases. It is suggested that the enzyme cleaves a peptide bond in a sensitive region of the macroglobulin, and that this results in a conformational change in the alpha(2)-macroglobulin molecule that traps the enzyme irreversibly. Access of substrates to the active site of the enzyme becomes sterically hindered, causing inhibition that is most pronounced with large substrate molecules. 7. The possible physiological importance of the unique binding characteristics of alpha(2)-macroglobulin is discussed.
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            Cathepsin B1. A lysosomal enzyme that degrades native collagen.

            1. Experiments were made to determine whether the purified lysosomal proteinases, cathepsins B1 and D, degrade acid-soluble collagen in solution, reconstituted collagen fibrils, insoluble collagen or gelatin. 2. At acid pH values cathepsin B1 released (14)C-labelled peptides from collagen fibrils reconstituted at neutral pH from soluble collagen. The purified enzyme required activation by cysteine and EDTA and was inhibited by 4-chloromercuribenzoate, by the chloromethyl ketones derived from tosyl-lysine and acetyltetra-alanine and by human alpha(2)-macroglobulin. 3. Cathepsin B1 degraded collagen in solution, the pH optimum being pH4.5-5.0. The initial action was cleavage of the non-helical region containing the cross-link; this was seen as a decrease in viscosity with no change in optical rotation. The enzyme also attacked the helical region of collagen by a mechanism different from that of mammalian neutral collagenase. No discrete intermediate products of a specific size were observed in segment-long-spacing crystalloids (measured as native collagen molecules aligned with N-termini together along the long axis) or as separate peaks on gel filtration chromatography. This suggests that once an alpha-chain was attacked it was rapidly degraded to low-molecular-weight peptides. 4. Cathepsin B1 degraded insoluble collagen with a pH optimum below 4; this value is lower than that found for the soluble substrate, and a possible explanation is given. 5. The lysosomal carboxyl proteinase, cathepsin D, had no action on collagen or gelatin at pH3.0. Neither cathepsin B1 nor D cleaved Pz-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-d-Arg. 6. Cathepsin B1 activity was shown to be essential for the degradation of collagen by lysosomal extracts. 7. Cathepsin B1 may provide an alternative route for collagen breakdown in physiological and pathological situations.
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              Cathepsin D. Purification of isoenzymes from human and chicken liver.

              1. The Barrett (1967) assay for cathepsin D was slightly modified. 2. The enzyme was purified from liver of man and chicken by a procedure involving autolysis, acetone fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography and isoelectric focusing. 3. Several isoenzymes of cathepsin D were resolved in the isoelectric-focusing step, and three major forms, alpha,beta and gamma, were distinguished for each species. 4. A modified analytical method of isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel indicated a high degree of homogeneity of the purified beta and gamma isoenzymes from each species, and this was supported by their constant high specific activities. 5. Gel filtration of the isoenzymes in a calibrated column of Sephadex G-100 showed that each had a molecular weight of 45000. 6. Human cathepsin D had a pH optimum of 3.5, and that of chicken enzyme was 3.0, haemoglobin being used as substrate. In each species, the three isoenzymes have the same pH-dependence curve. 7. The purified cathepsin D samples showed very little action on acid-denatured albumin.
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                Book Chapter
                1977
                September 4 2012
                : 291-300
                10.1007/978-1-4757-0719-9_17
                7e6399d2-6daa-4954-82c3-90246917706e
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