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      Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Immunomodulators 

      Therapeutic Effects of Withania somnifera: An Overview with Special Focus on Alzheimer’s Disease and Infertility among Youth

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      Springer Nature Singapore

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          Is Open Access

          New Insights Into the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease

          Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly and the most prevalent cause of dementia, is characterized by progressive cognitive impairment. The prevalence of AD continues to increase worldwide, becoming a great healthcare challenge of the twenty-first century. In the more than 110 years since AD was discovered, many related pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed, and the most recognized hypotheses are the amyloid and tau hypotheses. However, almost all clinical trials targeting these mechanisms have not identified any effective methods to treat AD. Scientists are gradually moving away from the simple assumption, as proposed in the original amyloid hypothesis, to new theories of pathogenesis, including gamma oscillations, prion transmission, cerebral vasoconstriction, growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1α (GHSR1α)-mediated mechanism, and infection. To place these findings in context, we first reviewed the neuropathology of AD and further discussed new insights in the pathogenesis of AD.
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            Male infertility: pathogenesis and clinical diagnosis.

            Infertility affects about 7% of all men. The etiology of impaired sperm production and function can be related to factors acting at pre-testicular, post-testicular or directly at the testicular level. Primary testicular failure accounts for about 75% of all male factor infertility. Genetic factors can be identified in about 15% of cases (congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, congenital absence of vas deferens, primitive testicular failure). Despite progresses, mainly in the field of genetics, the etiology is still unknown in about 50% cases and it is termed "idiopathic infertility". A part from few exceptions, the only available therapy for male factor infertility is assisted reproduction which allows conception also in severe male factor, including azoospermia following testicular sperm extraction. The complete diagnostic workup is important for: i) the identification of treatable/reversible or health-threatening conditions; ii) selection of patients for assisted reproductive techniques; iii) for appropriate genetic counselling including preventive measures (preimplanatation or prenatal diagnosis) to safeguard the health of future offspring. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Prevention of recurrent preterm delivery by 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate.

              Women who have had a spontaneous preterm delivery are at greatly increased risk for preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancies. The results of several small trials have suggested that 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) may reduce the risk of preterm delivery. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving pregnant women with a documented history of spontaneous preterm delivery. Women were enrolled at 19 clinical centers at 16 to 20 weeks of gestation and randomly assigned by a central data center, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive either weekly injections of 250 mg of 17P or weekly injections of an inert oil placebo; injections were continued until delivery or to 36 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was preterm delivery before 37 weeks of gestation. Analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Base-line characteristics of the 310 women in the progesterone group and the 153 women in the placebo group were similar. Treatment with 17P significantly reduced the risk of delivery at less than 37 weeks of gestation (incidence, 36.3 percent in the progesterone group vs. 54.9 percent in the placebo group; relative risk, 0.66 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.81]), delivery at less than 35 weeks of gestation (incidence, 20.6 percent vs. 30.7 percent; relative risk, 0.67 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.48 to 0.93]), and delivery at less than 32 weeks of gestation (11.4 percent vs. 19.6 percent; relative risk, 0.58 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.37 to 0.91]). Infants of women treated with 17P had significantly lower rates of necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage, and need for supplemental oxygen. Weekly injections of 17P resulted in a substantial reduction in the rate of recurrent preterm delivery among women who were at particularly high risk for preterm delivery and reduced the likelihood of several complications in their infants. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society

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