Nigerian Journal of Tropical Engineering

Nigerian Journal of Tropical Engineering (NJTE) published by Faculty of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi Nigeria.

ISSN: 1595-5397 

The Nigerian Journal of Tropical Engineering (NJTE) is published by the Faculty of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi Nigeria.

NJTE is a journal focusing on significant cutting-edge research and the latest technological advances in Engineering, Engineering Technology, Engineering Science and Applied Mathematics as well as other relevant disciplines. These include, but are not limited to, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Production Engineering, Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering, Civil Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Automotive Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Mechatronics and Systems Engineering, Biochemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Applied and Engineering Mathematics. 



  • Prof Aje Tokan, Department of Mechanical/Production Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi Nigeria (Metallurgical and Materials Engineering) 


  • Dr Isah Yakub Mohammed, Department of Chemical Engineering Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria (Process and Energy Systems Engineering, Cleaner Chemical and Environmental Engineering) 


  • Dr Adekunle Moshood Abioye, Department of Mechanical/Production Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi Nigeria (Renewable Energy, Electrochemical Energy Storage, Microwave Pyrolysis, Environmental Engineering) 
  • Dr Kabir Garba, Department of Chemical Engineering Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria (Energy Conservation, Renewable Energy, Catalysis, Optimisation, Environment) 
  • Dr Olaosebikan Layi Akangbe, Department of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria 
  • Dr Abubakar Sadiq Abdulkadir, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria ( Instrumentation and Control, Electronics, Biomedical Engineering)
  • Dr Mohammed Bello Adamu, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria (Petroleum Geosciences, Reservoir Engineering) 
  • Dr Suleiman Arafat Yero, Department of Civil Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria (Bitumen and Pavement Materials)


The Nigerian Journal of Tropical Engineering (NJTE) focuses on significant cutting-edge research and the latest technological advances in Engineering, Engineering Technology, Engineering Science and Applied Mathematics as well as other relevant disciplines.

Authors should ensure that submitted manuscripts are aligned with the journal’s objectives and broad readership. At the initial submission stage, NJTE doesn’t require authors to format their manuscript according to a specific template. Upon acceptance of the manuscript, the authors shall format the manuscript according the journal’s template, which can be downloaded here (if you are using a Chrome browser and the download does not work, try copying the link address and paste in new tab/window). When formatting your article based on the template, please do not edit the header and footer, as this will be done by the editorial office.

The journal considers all original manuscripts that report scientifically sound research and provide a substantial amount of significant new information. NJTE accepts two types of articles: original research articles (5000 words max.) and review articles (7000 words max.).



Manuscript guidelines



The manuscript should include: Title page (title, authors, affiliations, contact, abstract, keywords (up to 10), conflict of interest statement); Main text (introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, figures with captions, tables with captions) Acknowledgments (Funder), References.

There are no word limits for submissions, but manuscripts should be concise and well-written.

  • Abstract (up to 250 words).
  • Keywords (up to 10 keywords). Authors are highly encouraged to mention the relevant SDGs (sustainable development goals) as keywords, where applicable. 
  • Main body of the text (e.g. introduction, background, methodology, results, discussion, conclusions). Authors can choose their own heading titles.
  • A list of abbreviations at the end of the manuscript. Abbreviations should be defined in text when first used.
  • Funding and Acknowledgement statements – All sources of funding for the research reported should be declared.
  • Supporting information: such as datasets, software codes, or any other supplementary information that helps the reader understand the manuscript better. Once the manuscript has been accepted, the authors shall upload any supporting information on a public data repository and provide the URL. The URL to the supporting information (which was already uploaded on a public data repository) can also be added at the submission stage in the designated field.
  • Declarations and Conflict of Interests statement – Where there are no conflicts of interests or competing interests, authors must clearly declare this under the same heading – usually as ‘The authors declare no conflicts of interest with this work’.
  • A full reference list. After acceptance, the authors must format the final manuscript according to NJTE’s template.



Manuscripts may be written in any standard program including Word and LaTeX. Authors will upload a pdf for peer review. Upon submission of revised manuscripts authors will also be requested to submit a pdf version with tracked changes. Only after final acceptance of a manuscript will the author be requested to submit Word or LaTeX files for typesetting.

There are no strict formatting requirements, but all manuscripts should follow the basic structure for reporting scientific research above.

Language NJTE only accepts manuscripts in English (US or UK). It is the responsibility of the authors to ensure that the manuscript has no language or grammar errors. Manuscripts with excessive language errors may be rejected. Authors may choose to use a professional language proofreading service.

References may be in any style, provided that formatting is consistent throughout. It is essential to include author(s) name(s), journal or book title, article or chapter title, year of publication, volume and issue. DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) for each reference are not mandatory but strongly encouraged. Bibliography management tools such as EndNote, Zotero, Mendeley, Reference Manager are recommended.

Tables should be black and white/greyscale only and formatted as simply as possible for best accessibility.

Images should be submitted in high resolution for the typesetter after final acceptance of the manuscript. Please ensure you have appropriate permissions to reuse any images or figures in the manuscript. You maybe required to provide proof for permission to reuse images by the editors or reviewers.


Authors will be required to fill out a data availability statement when submitting their manuscript. Data should be made available for peer reviewers, preferably in an open repository. Data may be cited with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) in the reference section of the article. See the Data Citation: Guide to Best Practice.


In all cases of publication ethics the journal will refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines:

Reporting research that involves human subjects or data requires a declaration that the investigations were carried out following the rules of the Declaration of Helsinki ( Approval from the institutional review board (IRB) or other appropriate ethics committee must be obtained before undertaking the research to confirm the study meets national and international guidelines. A statement including the project identification code, date of approval, and name of the ethics committee or institutional review board must be included as ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’ article. For example: "All subjects gave their informed consent for inclusion before they participated in the study. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and the protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of XXX (Project identification code)." The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.


How to submit your manuscript

Submit your manuscript as a single PDF file via the ‘Submit manuscript’ button and complete the online form – you will be asked to register on the ScienceOpen platform with your ORCID ID.

The manuscript will be sent to the editor-in-chief who will assess the suitability of the paper before it is sent out to potential reviewers. The single-blind peer-review process will take approximately 4 weeks. After that the editor-in-chief will make a decision to either: reject the paper, accept it, or request a major or minor revision.


Submitting a revised manuscript

When requested to revise, please follow and make note of the below points to improve reference to any changes for the journal Editors and reviewers:

  • Please provide a summary of changes made in the cover letter and submit it as part of the revised submission files.
  • Highlight any changes in the text.
  • Submit a separate PDF file where you write the reviewers’ comments and your response to each one. Be specific in your response to expedite the revised manuscript review stage.

When responding to the reviewers’ comments, kindly consider the following:

  • Address all points raised by the editor and reviewers.
  • Outline what revisions have been made, including where applicable any further or additional analyses or experiments.
  • Provide a polite objective rebuttal to any points or comments disagreed with.

Once you are ready to submit please follow these 3 steps:

  • Login to My ScienceOpen.
  • Navigate to your paper online and you will then see a ‘New Revision’ button under the ‘Read’ button. Click this to upload a new file in the submission form.
  • Check all details are correct and upload the new revised PDF file.



Open Access Publishing Agreement


By submitting my manuscript to the Nigerian Journal of Tropical Engineering (NJTE) published by Faculty of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi Nigeria (hereafter the ‘Publisher’), I herewith grant permission to the Publisher to publish my article upon editorial acceptance under the following publishing agreement.

I hereby confirm that this is my original work and that

  • I own the sole copyright in this work
  • And/or I have obtained permission from all other Authors to execute this Agreement on their behalf if necessary

And that the work

  • Has never been published before.

I understand that in granting this consent I am granting to the Publisher the Rights to publish under a Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0 license the Contribution in the English language in digital form; moral rights will be retained by the original Author/s and copyright will be held by the Author.

I agree to this Publishing Agreement, consent to execution and delivery of the Publishing Agreement electronically, and agree that confirming my consent electronically during the manuscript submission process with an electronic signature shall be given the same legal force as a handwritten signature.


Terms of Use

  1. The Contribution will be made Open Access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY License) which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the Contribution is properly cited.
  2. The Journal (and Publisher) reserves the right to require changes to the Contribution, including changes to the length of the Contribution, as a condition of its acceptance. The Journal (and Publisher) reserves the right, notwithstanding acceptance, not to publish the Contribution if for any reason such publication would in the reasonable judgment of the Journal (and Publisher), result in legal liability or violation of journal ethical practices. If the Journal (or Publisher) decides not to publish the Contribution, the Author is free to submit the Contribution to any other journal from any other publisher.
  3. As above, the final Contribution will be made Open Access under the terms of the CC-BY license. Reproduction, posting, transmission, or other distribution or use of the final Contribution in whole or in part in any medium by the Author as permitted by this Agreement requires a citation to the Journal suitable in form and content as follows: (Title of Contribution, Author, Journal Title and Volume/issue, Digital Object Identifier (DOI), Date). Links to the final published Contribution should be provided following the guidance below on best practices.


Retained Rights

The Author retains all proprietary rights in addition to copyright, such as patent rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in the Contribution.


Author's Representations

The Author(s) certify that they have participated sufficiently in the intellectual content, conception, and design of this work or the analysis and interpretation of the data (when applicable), as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it and have agreed to have their name listed as a contributor. The Author(s) believe the manuscript represents valid work. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under their authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in the cover letter. The Author(s) certify that all the data collected during the study is presented in this manuscript and no data from the study has been or will be published separately. If requested by the editors, the Author(s) will provide the data/information or will cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data/information on which the manuscript is based, for examination by the editors or their assignees. Financial interests, direct or indirect, that exist or may be perceived to exist for individual contributors in connection with the content of this paper have been disclosed in the cover letter. Sources of outside support for the project are named in the cover letter.


Use of Information

The Author(s) acknowledges that, during the term of this Agreement and thereafter (for as long as necessary), the Publisher and the Journal may process the Author’s data, including storing or transferring data outside of the country of the Contributor’s residence, to communicate with the Author(s) and that the Publisher has a legitimate interest in processing the Author(s)’ personal data. By entering into this Agreement, the Author(s) agree to the processing of personal data (and, where applicable, confirms that the Author has obtained permission from all other authors to process their data). The Publisher and the Journal shall comply with all applicable laws, statutes, and regulations relating to data protection and privacy and shall process such personal data.



Article Processing Charges


The journal will charge an article processing charge (APC) of 100 USD to support technical infrastructure and editorial effort.



By publishing in the journal authors are required to provide a data availability statement in their articles. Authors are encouraged to share their data but not required to. The decision to publish will not be affected by whether or not authors share their research data.


  • Data availability statements

Optional / Encouraged

  • Data citation
  • Data sharing via repositories for all research data



Definition of research data

This policy applies to the research data that would be required to verify the results of research reported in articles published in the journal. Research data include data produced by the authors (“primary data”) and data from other sources that are analysed by authors in their study (“secondary data”).


Research data includes any recorded factual material that are used to produce the results in digital and non-digital form. This includes tabular data, code, images, audio, documents, video, maps, raw and/or processed data.

Definition of exceptions

Research data that are not required to verify the results reported in articles are not covered by this policy.


This policy does not require public sharing of quantitative or qualitative data that could identify a research participant unless participants have consented to data release. The policy also does not require public sharing of other sensitive data, such as the locations of endangered species. Alternatives to public sharing of sensitive or personal data include:

  • Deposition of research data in controlled access repositories
  • Anonymisation or deidentification of data before public sharing
  • Only sharing metadata about the research data
  • Stating the procedures for accessing your research data in your article and managing data access requests from other researchers


Embargoes on data sharing are permitted.

Supplementary materials

Sharing research data as supplementary information files is discouraged.

Data repositories

The preferred mechanism for sharing research data is via data repositories. Please see for help finding research data repositories.

Data citation

The journal encourages authors to cite any publicly available research data in their reference list. References to datasets (data citations) must include a persistent identifier (such as a DOI). Citations of datasets, when they appear in the reference list, should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite and follow journal style.

Data licensing

The journal encourages research data to be made available under open licences that permit reuse freely. The journal does not enforce particular licenses for research data, where research data are deposited in third party repositories. The publisher of the journal does not claim copyright in research data.

Researcher/ author support

Questions about complying with this policy should be sent to

Data availability statements

The journal requires authors to include in any articles that report results derived from research data to include a Data availability statement. The provision of a Data availability statement will be verified as a condition of publication. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found including, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study. Where research data are not publicly available, this must be stated in the manuscript along with any conditions for accessing the data. Data Availability statements must take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple types of research data):

  • The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]
  • The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the currentstudy are not publicly available due [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  • The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the currentstudy are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  • Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were​             generated or analysed during the current study.
  • All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this​             published article [and its supplementary information files].
  • The data that support the findings of this study are available from [third party name] but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of [third party name].


Collection Information

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