AHRO Reviews Food Sciences & Nutrition

AHRO Reviews Food Sciences & Nutrition

The AHRO Review of Food Science and Nutrition is an international, peer-reviewed, open access journal that welcomes high-quality research articles in all aspect of nutrition and food sciences. The aim of the journal is to promote the dissemination knowledge in  nutrition and food sciences ARFSN covers all spectrum of nutritional sciences including nutrition research, nutrition research reviews, current developments in nutrition research, food processing research, food processing reviews, food science, food technology, metabolic research, nutrigenomics, epidemiology, public health nutrition, endocrinology, and dietary and health.  ARFSN welcomes papers on original research, brief reports, review articles, systematic reviews, and workshop reports, Letters to the Editor, and Book review, and Obituaries


Abbreviation: ARFSN

ISSN: 2754-8937 (Print), 2754-8945 (Online)


This journal covers a wide range of topics, including:


  • Nutrition epidemiology
  • Clinical Nutrition
  • Molecular Nutrition and Food Research
  • Antioxidants and Phytochemicals in Food
  • Nutrition Epidemiology
  • Maternal nutrition; infants and children
  • Eating Disorders
  • Body composition
  • energy expenditure and physical activity
  • Food Processing Technology
  • Metabolism and Nutrition Physiology
  • Public Health Nutrition
  • Vitamins and minerals
  • Advances in Food Research
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Chemical Food Safety
  • Proteins, amino Acids and Micronutrients
  • Nutrient Metabolism
  • Integrated Food Science and Human Nutrition
  • Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
  • Food Safety and Hygiene
  • Implementation of nanoscience & technology in food and nutrition




Editor In Chief/Advisor

Prof Abubakar Yaro
Director-General, Africa Health Research Organization, Scotland, UK


Managing Editor

Associate Professor Adeyeye Samuel Ayofemi Olalekan
Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science, Hindustan University, Padur, Chennai, India

Expertise: Food technology



Editorial Board Members


Prof. Dr. Habil. SIMONA CAVALU
Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy University of Oradea (ROMANIA) & Google Scholar

Expertise: Bio nano-materials for orthopaedic, dental and drug delivery applications, bioceramics (alumina/zirconia, alumina-silicate, hydroxyapatite), tissue regeneration, natural polymeric composites for controlled drug release, nanomedicine, functional food, natural compounds for therapeutic strategies, Animal model (in vivo biocompatibility tests), in vitro tests (cells culture, cytotoxicity, proliferation),


Prof Dr Merve Keskin
Vocational School Of Health Services, Bilecik Seyh Edebali University, Bilecik, Turkey

Expertise: Natural products, phytotherapy, apitherapy, bee products, food additives, food chemistry, biosensors. 


Prof Dr  H.C. Ananda Murthy
Associate Professor in Materials Chemistry, Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Applied Natural Science
Adama Science and Technology University, P O Box 1888,Adama, Ethiopia

Expertise: Nanomaterials & nanocomposites in multifunctional applications including, food, drug and biomedical fields.


Dr. Faranak Hadi PhD
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran

Expertise: Biochemistry, Molecular genetics, Genetics, and Cellular and Molecular Biology



Assistant Editors


Professor Dr Ivi Chakraborty
Department of Post Harvest Management, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalay, Mohanpur-741252, Nadia, West Bengal

Expertise: Post Harvest Management of Horticultural Crops, their value addition, waste utilization, quality retention including nutritive quality, Active& Smart Food Packaging.


Prof Dr Ashish Prabhakarrao Lambat
Sevadal Mahila Mahavidyalaya & Research Academy, Om Nagar, Sakkaradara, Umrer Road, Nagpur-440009, Maharashtra, India

Expertise: Food & Agriculture, Crop management.


Prasun Chakravarti
Provost & Institute Endowed Distinguished Senior Chair Professor, Techno India NJR Udaipur, Innovation, Incubation & Industry Laboratory Techno India NJR Institute of Technology Udaipur Rajasthan India

Expertise: Artificial Intelligence, IOT, Applications in AI in Food Science, Biomedical Drug Design & Drug delivery Applications


Prof. Dr. Tulika Chakrabarti (Mukherjee) 
Department of Chemistry, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

Expertise: Natural Products, Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Bioactive compounds


Dr. Rishi Man Chugh
Post doctoral fellow Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas

Expertise: Regulation of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level


Dr. Shasank Sekhar Swain
Post Doctoral Fellow ,ICMR-Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar-23

Expertise: Structural biology, Natural product Design of hybrid drugs and synthesis of amide base, Computational chemistry, Bio-informatics, Biomedical Applications


Prof. Dr.Tanima Bhattacharya
Director of Courses, AHRO International University, Glasgow, Scotland

Expertise: Food Processing, Food Preservation, Active Smart & IntelligentFood Packaging, Nutrient delivery systems, Natural Products, Clinical& Therapeutic Nutrition, Nutrients mechanism & Interactions with human system, Nanomedicines, Drug Delivery, Theranostics, Nanosensors.



Advisory board members


Prof. Hitesh Chopra
Researcher Department of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, India

Expertise: Natural Products, Nanomedicine, Nutrient & Drug Delivery

Prof. Giselle A. Borges e Soares
Researcher, Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, University of Toledo, 3000 Arlington Ave. Toledo, OH 43614, USA

Expertise: Medicinal Chemistry, Cancer Theranostics, Drug Design Development & Delivery


Prof. Namratha MP
Researcher, Department of Life Sciences, Christ University, India

Expertise: Screening and isolation of strains with hypocholesterolemic potential, Prebiotic selection and optimization of probiotic-prebiotic ratio to formulate optimal symbiotic composition, Fermentative production of selected probioticstrain.


The Editorial Process

The manuscripts will be reviewed for possible publication with the understanding that they are being submitted to one journal at a time and have not been published, simultaneously submitted, or already accepted for publication elsewhere. On an average, 75-90% of the manuscripts are rejected by the editors before a formal peer-review. The Managing Editor or Associate Editor review all submitted manuscripts initially. Manuscripts with insufficient originality, serious scientific and technical flaws, or lack of a significant message are rejected. All manuscripts received are duly acknowledged. Manuscripts are sent to two or more expert reviewers without revealing the identity of the contributors to the reviewers. Each manuscript is also assigned to a member of the editorial team, who based on the comments from the reviewers takes a final decision on the manuscript. The contributors will be informed about the reviewers' comments and acceptance/rejection of manuscript. The average submission to first decision time is about 5 weeks and about 85% of unsolicited manuscripts do not get published. Articles accepted would be copy edited for grammar, punctuation, print style, and format. Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author, which has to be returned within five days. Correction received after that period may not be included.


Authorship Criteria

 Authorship credit should be based only on substantial contributions 1. Conception and design or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data; 2. Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 3. Final approval of the version to be published. Conditions 1, 2, and 3 must be met. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship. Each contributor should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. The order of naming the contributors should be based on the relative contribution of the contributor towards the study and writing the manuscript. Once submitted the order cannot be changed without written consent of all the contributors. For a study from in a single institute the number of contributors should not exceed six. For a case-report, images, letter to the editor and review article the number of contributors should not exceed four. A justification should be included, if the number of contributors exceeds these limits. Only those who have done substantial work in a particular field can write a review article. A short summary of the work done by the contributor(s) in the field of review should accompany the manuscript. The journal expects the contributors to give post-publication updates on the subject of review. The update should be brief, covering the advances in the field after the publication of article and should be sent as a letter to editor, as and when major development occurs in the field.

Contribution Details Contributors should provide a description of what each of them contributed towards the manuscript. Description should be divided in following categories, as applicable: concepts, design, definition of intellectual content, literature search, clinical studies, experimental studies, data acquisition, data analysis, statistical analysis, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing and manuscript review. Authors' contributions will be printed on the first page of the article. One or more author should take responsibility of the integrity of the work as a whole from inception to published article and should be designated as 'guarantor'.


Conflict of Interest

All authors of submitting articles to the journal must disclose any conflict of interest they may have with an institution or product that is mentioned in the manuscript and/or is important to the outcome of the study presented. Authors should also disclose conflict of interest with products that compete with those mentioned in their manuscript. The Editor will discuss with the authors on an individual basis the method by which any conflicts of interest will be communicated to the readers.


Copies of any permission(s)

To reproduce published material, and to use illustrations or report information about identifiable people a copy of the permission obtained must accompany the manuscript. Copies of any and all published articles or other manuscripts in preparation or submitted elsewhere that are related to the manuscript must also accompany the manuscript. The manuscript should be sent to AHRO Review of Food Sciences & Nutrition, c/o AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd, 272 Bath Street Glasgow G2 4JR Scotland.



1. Original articles: Randomized controlled trials, intervention studied, studies of screening and diagnostic test, outcome studies, cost effectiveness analyses, case control series, and surveys with high response rate. Up to 3000 words excluding about 30 references and abstract.

2. Review articles: Systemic critical assessments of literature and data sources. Up to 4000 words excluding about 90 references and abstract. For review articles, include the method (literature search) in abstract as well as in the introduction section.

3. Case reports: new/interesting/very rare cases can be reported. Cases with clinical significance or implications will be given priority. However, mere reporting of a rare case may not be considered. Up to 1000 words excluding references and abstract and up to 10 references.

 4. Images in Clinical Nutrition: a short history, photograph, differential diagnosis, and short discussion of classic and/or rare case. Should not be more than 800 words excluding up to six references.

5. Letter to the Editor: Should be short, decisive observation. They should not be preliminary observations that need a later paper for validation. Up to 500 words and 5 references.

6. Obituaries: Tributes to late eminent individuals whose contribution to Medical Science were phenomenon. Up to 300 words.

7. Announcements of conferences, meetings, courses, and other items likely to be of interest to the readers should be submitted with the name and address of the person from whom additional information can be obtained.

8. Technical Report


The text of original articles should be divided into sections with the headings: Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, References, Tables and Figure legends. For a brief report include Abstract, Key-words Introduction, Case report, Discussion, Reference, Tables and Legends in that order.

 Do not use subheadings in these sections. Use double spacing throughout. Number pages consecutively, beginning with the title page. The language should be American English.


Title Page

The title page should carry

1. Type of manuscript (e.g. Original article, Case Report)

2. The title of the article, which should be concise, but informative;

3. Running title or short title not more than 50 characters;

4. The name by which each contributor is known (Last name, First name and initials of middle name), with his or her highest academic degree(s) and institutional affiliation;

 5. The name of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed; 6. The name, address, phone numbers, facsimile numbers and e-mail address of the contributor responsible for correspondence about the manuscript;

7. The total number of pages, total number of photographs and word counts separately for abstract and for the text (excluding the references and abstract);

8. Source(s) of support in the form of grants, equipment, drugs, or all of these;

9. Acknowledgement, if any; one or more statements should specify 1) contributions that need acknowledging but do not justify authorship, such as general support by a departmental chair; 2) acknowledgments of technical help; and 3) acknowledgments of financial and material support, which should specify the nature of the support. This should be included in the title page of the manuscript and not in the main article file.

10. If the manuscript was presented as part at a meeting, the organization, place, and exact date on which it was read.

 11. Registration number of clinical trials.


Abstract Page

The second page should carry the full title of the manuscript and an abstract (of no more than 150 words for brief reports and 250 words for original articles and other article types). The abstract should be structured for original articles. State the context (background), aims, settings and design, material and methods, statistical analysis used, results and conclusions. Below the abstract should provide 3 to 8 keywords. The abstract should not be structured for a brief report, review article, symposia and research methodology. Do not include references in abstract. Introduction State the purpose and summarize the rationale for the study or observation.

Materials and Methods: The Methods section should only include information that was available at the time the study was planned or protocol written; all information obtained during the conduct of the study belongs to the results section. Selection and Description of Participants: Describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population. Because the relevance of such variables as age and sex to the object of research is not always clear, authors should explain their use when they are included in a study report; for example, authors should explain why only subjects of certain ages were included or why women were excluded. The guiding principle should be clarity about how and why a study was done in a particular way. When authors use variables such as race or ethnicity, they should define how they measured the variables and justify their relevance. Technical information: Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer's name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration.

Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements, including the protocol, assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups), and the method of masking (blinding), based on the CONSORT Statement (http://www.consort-statement.org). Reporting Guidelines for Specific Study Designs Initiative Type of study Source CONSORT randomized controlled trials http://www.consort-statement.org STARD studies of diagnostic accuracy http://www.consortstatement.org/stardstatement.htm QUOROM systematic reviews and meta-analyses http://www.consortstatement.org/Initiatives/MOOSE/moose.pdf STROBE observational studies in epidemiology http://www.strobe-statement.org MOOSE meta-analyses of observational studies in epidemiology http://www.consortstatement.org/Initiatives/MOOSE/moose.pdf

Note: Authors submitting review article should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.



When reporting studies on human indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (available at http://www.wma.net/e/policy/17-c_e.html). Do not use patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the institutions or a national research council’s guide for, or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. Evidence for approval by a local Ethics Committee (for both human as well as animal studies) must be supplied by the authors on demand. Animal experimental procedures should be as humane as possible and the details of anesthetics and analgesics used should be clearly stated. The ethical standards of experiments must be in accordance with the guidelines provided by the CPCSEA (animal) and ICMR (human). The journal will not consider any paper which is ethically unacceptable. A statement on ethics committee permission and ethical practices must be included in all research articles under the ‘Materials and Methods’ section. Statistics Whenever possible quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Report losses to observation (such as dropouts from a clinical trial). When data are summarized in the Results section, specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Avoid non-technical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as 'random' (which implies a randomizing device), 'normal', 'significant', 'correlations', and 'sample'. Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. Specify the computer software used. Use upper italics (P 0.048). For all P values include the exact value and not less than 0.05 or 0.001. Results Present your results in a logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. Extra or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in an appendix where it will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text; alternatively, it can be published only in the electronic version of the journal. When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess its support. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. "Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by variables such as age and sex should be included. Discussion Include summary of key findings (primary outcome measures, secondary outcome measures, results as they relate to a prior hypothesis); Strengths and limitations of the study (study question, study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation); Interpretation and implications in the context of the totality of evidence (is there a systematic review to refer to, if not, could one be reasonably done here and now?, what this study adds to the available evidence, effects on patient care and health policy, possible mechanisms); Controversies raised by this study; and Future research directions (for this particular research collaboration, underlying mechanisms, clinical research). Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the Introduction or the Results section. In particular, contributors should avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless their manuscript includes economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when warranted, but clearly label them as such.



References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text (not in alphabetic order).

References should be 10 years old or less. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in superscript with square bracket after the punctuation marks.

References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. Use the style of the examples below, which are based on the formats used by the NLM in Index Medicus. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus. Use complete name of the journal for nonindexed journals. Avoid using abstracts as references.

Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as "unpublished observations" with written permission from the source. Avoid citing a "personal communication" unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text.

The commonly cited types of references are shown here, for other types of references such as electronic media; newspaper items, etc. please refer to ICMJE Guidelines (http://www.icmje.org or http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html). Download a PowerPoint presentation on common reference styles and using the reference checking facility on the manuscript submission site.


Articles in Journals

  1. Standard journal article: Bavdekar SB, Gogtay NJ, Muzumdar D, Vaideeswar P, Salvi V, Sarkar M. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine: The path ahead. J Postgrad Med 2007;53:153-3. List the first six contributors followed by et al.
  2. Volume with supplement: Shen HM, Zhang QF. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer. Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102 Suppl 1:275-82.
  3. Issue with supplement: Payne DK, Sullivan MD, Massie MJ. Women's psychological reactions to breast cancer. Semin Oncol 1996; 23(1, Suppl 2):89-97. Books and Other Monographs
  4. Personal author(s): Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. 2nd ed. Albany (NY): Delmar Publishers; 1996.
  5. Editor(s), compiler(s) as author: Norman IJ, Redfern SJ, editors. Mental health care for elderly people. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996.
  6. Chapter in a book: Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, editors. Hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995. pp. 465-78.



• Tables should be self-explanatory and should not duplicate textual material.

• Tables with more than 10 columns and 25 rows are not acceptable.

• Number tables, in Arabic numerals, consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each.

• Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading.

• Explain in footnotes all non-standard abbreviations that are used in each table.

• Obtain permission for all fully borrowed, adapted, and modified tables and provide a credit line in the footnote.

• For footnotes use the following symbols, in this sequence: *, †, ‡, §, ||, , **, ††, ‡‡

• Tables with their legends should be provided at the end of the text after the references. The tables along with their number should be cited at the relevant place in the text Illustrations (Figures)

• Upload the images in JPEG format. The file size should be within 4 MB in size while uploading. Send sharp, glossy, un-mounted, color photographic prints, with height of 4 inches and width of 6 inches at the time of submitting the revised manuscript.

• Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text.

• Labels, numbers, and symbols should be clear and of uniform size. The lettering for figures should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit the width of a printed column.

• Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background and should be marked neatly with transfer type or by tissue overlay and not by pen.

• Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends for illustrations not on the illustrations themselves.

• When graphs, scatter-grams or histograms are submitted the numerical data on which they are based should also be supplied.

• The photographs and figures should be trimmed to remove all the unwanted areas.

• If photographs of people are used, either the subjects must not be identifiable or their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.

• If a figure has been published elsewhere, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. A credit line should appear in the legend for such figures.

• Legends for illustrations: Type or print out legends (maximum 40 words, excluding the credit line) for illustrations using double spacing, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one in the legend. Explain the internal scale (magnification) and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.

• Final figures for print production: If the uploaded images are not printable quality, publisher office may request for higher resolution images which can be sent at the time of acceptance of the manuscript. Print outs of digital photographs are not acceptable. If digital images are the only source of images, ensure that the image has minimum resolution of 300 dpi or 1800 x 1600 pixels in TIFF format. Send the images on a CD. Each figure should have a label pasted (avoid use of liquid gum for pasting) on its back indicating the number of the figure, the running title, top of the figure and the legends of the figure. Do not write the contributor/s' name/s. Do not write on the back of figures, scratch, or mark them by using paper clips.

• The Journal reserves the right to crop, rotate, reduce, or enlarge the photographs to an acceptable size. Protection of Patients' Rights to Privacy Identifying information should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, sonograms, CT scans, etc., and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian, wherever applicable) gives informed consent for publication. Authors should remove patients' names from figures unless they have obtained informed consent from the patients.


The journal abides by ICMJE guidelines:

1) Authors, neither the journals nor the publisher, need to obtain the patient consent form before the publication and have the form properly archived. The consent forms are not to be uploaded with the cover letter or sent through email to editorial or publisher offices.

2) If the manuscript contains patient images that preclude anonymity, or a description that has obvious indication to the identity of the patient, a statement about obtaining informed patient consent should be indicated in the manuscript. Case Reports Case reports must meet all of the following criteria: 1. the case should be one that is highly unusual, very unique, underreported in the literature and; 2. the case report must present as a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problem and;

3. The case report must have significant educational value including the ability to perhaps change a clinician's traditional method of handling such a case and;

4. The case report's interest to the reader should be significant. Preparation of Case Reports Follow the standard format for the article (Abstract, Key-words, Introduction, Case History, Discussion and References). Submitting a revised Manuscript While submitting a revised manuscript, contributors are requested to include, the ‘referees’ remarks along with point to point clarification at the beginning in the revised file itself. In addition, mark the changes as underlined or colour text in the article. A photocopy of the first page of all the cited references (articles and books) can be asked by the journal to verify the references.


Authors can publish and make their research work open access in all the journals of AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd. All the articles are available free for the readers to read, download in any format. The work can be copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, provided that the original work is properly cited, under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License. To support the publication cost an article processing fee will be charged from the author. Article Processing Charges are needed to be paid by the author or the organization once the article is accepted for publication.


The publication fee of an article is $500 plus VAT for all article types except Letters, Short communication and Commentary, which is $200 plus VAT.

Waiver Policy:  AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd operates several waiver policies.  It should be noted that the decision whether to accept a paper for publication will rest solely with the Editors, without reference to the funding situation of the authors. The Editors, editorial board members, and reviewers will have no involvement with the billing of APCs and cannot grant waivers.


To be considered for waiver,

  1. The author(s) must request a waiver at or before submission, before an article enters editorial consideration by contacting the Publisher.
  2. The author(s) must provide documentary evidence for their request.
  3. The waiver request should be processed by the managing editor, without the knowledge of the editorial board.
  4. The waiver request should be processed as soon as possible before the article moves from submission to editorial consideration.
  5. The decision to approve or decline the waiver request should be based on the credibility of the evidence the author provides and the author following the journal’s waiver request procedure



Copyright Notice


Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.

b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.

c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Privacy Statement The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.



Checklist Covering letter


  • Signed by all contributors
  • Previous publication / presentations mentioned
  • Source of funding mentioned
  • Conflicts of interest disclosed Authors
  • Middle name initials provided
  • Author for correspondence, with e-mail address provided
  • Number of contributors restricted as per the instructions
  • Identity not revealed in paper except title page (e.g. name of the institute in Methods, citing previous study as 'our study', names on figure labels, name of institute in photographs, etc.) Presentation and format
  • Double spacing
  • Margins 2.5 cm from all four sides
  • Title page contains all the desired information
  • Running title provided (not more than 50 characters)
  • Abstract page contains the full title of the manuscript
  • Abstract provided (about 150 words for case reports and 250 words for original articles)
  • Structured abstract provided for an original article
  • Key words provided (three or more)
  • Introduction of 75-100 words
  • Headings in title case (not ALL CAPITALS)
  • The references cited in the text should be after punctuation marks, in superscript with square bracket.
  • References according to the journal's instructions, punctuation marks checked
  • Send the final article file without ‘Track Changes’ Language and grammar
  • Uniformly American English
  • Write the full term for each abbreviation at its first use in the title, abstract, keywords and text separately unless it is a standard unit of measure.
  • Numerals from 1 to 10 spelt out
  • Numerals at the beginning of the sentence spelt out
  • Check the manuscript for spelling, grammar and punctuation errors
  • If a brand name is cited, supply the manufacturer's name and address (city and state/country).
  • Species names should be in italics Tables and figures
  • No repetition of data in tables and graphs and in text
  • Actual numbers from which graphs drawn, provided
  • Figures necessary and of good quality (colour)
  • Table and figure numbers o Labels pasted on back of the photographs (no names written) o Figure legends provided (not more than 40 words)
  • Patients' privacy maintained (if not permission taken)
  • Credit note for borrowed figures/tables provided
  • Write the full term for each abbreviation used in the table as a footnote


Publisher Support: AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd provides information and guidance to assist authors publish their research in any of our journals. Click here



 Contributor’s form


I/we certify that I/we have participated sufficiently in the intellectual content, conception and design of this work or the analysis and interpretation of the data (when applicable), as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it and have agreed to have my/our name listed as a contributor. I/we believe the manuscript represents valid work. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my/our authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in the covering letter. I/we certify that all the data collected during the study is presented in this manuscript and no data from the study has been or will be published separately. I/we attest that, if requested by the editors, I/we will provide the data/information or will cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data/information on which the manuscript is based, for examination by the editors or their assignees. Financial interests, direct or indirect, that exist or may be perceived to exist for individual contributors in connection with the content of this paper have been disclosed in the cover letter. Sources of outside support of the project are named in the cover letter. I/We hereby transfer(s), assign(s), or otherwise convey(s) all copyright ownership, including any and all rights incidental thereto, exclusively to the Annals of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, in the event that such work is published by the Annals of Tropical Medicine & Public Health. The Annals of Tropical Medicine & Public Health shall own the work, including 1. the right to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 2. the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.

1 ------------ --------- ---------------

2 ------------ --------- ---------- -----

 3 ------------ --------- ---------- -----

 4 ------------ --------- ---------- -----

(up to 4 contributors for case report/images/review)

 5 ------------ --------- ---------- -----

 6 ------------ --------- ---------- -----

(up to 6 contributors for original studies)


(Copy this form to word and sign)


Send to submission@ahroeop.org


AHRO Organizes a number of events.


  • Glasgow International Health Festival: Glasgow International Health Festival 2022 (GIHF 2022) would bring together experts and stakeholders in global health to brainstorm through some of the latest data. The event would bring together 500 participants and 10 exhibitors on 24-27 August 2022 under the theme: "Innovation for global health". The event starts on the 24 August 2022 with the "Global Health Walk". For more information and registration, visit: https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/glasgow-international-health-festival-tickets-292064491757. Prospetive authors can send their manuscripts to: ahrojournals@outlook.com

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