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      CSF concentrations of brain tryptophan and kynurenines during immune stimulation with IFN-alpha: relationship to CNS immune responses and depression.

      Molecular Psychiatry

      cerebrospinal fluid, blood, Tryptophan, Statistics as Topic, therapeutic use, Ribavirin, Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II, Quinolinic Acid, Middle Aged, Male, Longitudinal Studies, Kynurenine, Interferon-alpha, Humans, immunology, complications, Hepatitis C, Female, methods, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, etiology, Depression, Cytokines, Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid, Chemokine CCL2, Antiviral Agents, Adult

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          Abstract

          Cytokine-induced activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catabolizes L-tryptophan (TRP) into L-kynurenine (KYN), which is metabolized to quinolinic acid (QUIN) and kynurenic acid (KA). QUIN and KA are neuroactive and may contribute to the behavioral changes experienced by some patients during exposure to inflammatory stimuli such as interferon (IFN)-alpha. A relationship between depressive symptoms and peripheral blood TRP, KYN and KA during treatment with IFN-alpha has been described. However, whether peripheral blood changes in these IDO catabolites are manifest in the brain and whether they are related to central nervous system cytokine responses and/or behavior is unknown. Accordingly, TRP, KYN, QUIN and KA were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood along with CSF concentrations of relevant cytokines, chemokines and soluble cytokine receptors in 27 patients with hepatitis C after approximately 12 weeks of either treatment with IFN-alpha (n=16) or no treatment (n=11). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. IFN-alpha significantly increased peripheral blood KYN, which was accompanied by marked increases in CSF KYN. Increased CSF KYN was in turn associated with significant increases in CSF QUIN and KA. Despite significant decreases in peripheral blood TRP, IFN-alpha had no effect on CSF TRP concentrations. Increases in CSF KYN and QUIN were correlated with increased CSF IFN-alpha, soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 as well as increased depressive symptoms. In conclusion, peripheral administration of IFN-alpha activated IDO in concert with central cytokine responses, resulting in increased brain KYN and QUIN, which correlated with depressive symptoms.

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          The Family of Ln2Ti2S2O5 Compounds (Ln=Nd Sm Gd Tb Dy Ho Er and Y) Optical Properties

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            From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain.

            In response to a peripheral infection, innate immune cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokines that act on the brain to cause sickness behaviour. When activation of the peripheral immune system continues unabated, such as during systemic infections, cancer or autoimmune diseases, the ensuing immune signalling to the brain can lead to an exacerbation of sickness and the development of symptoms of depression in vulnerable individuals. These phenomena might account for the increased prevalence of clinical depression in physically ill people. Inflammation is therefore an important biological event that might increase the risk of major depressive episodes, much like the more traditional psychosocial factors.
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              A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change.

              The construction of a depression rating scale designed to be particularly sensitive to treatment effects is described. Ratings of 54 English and 52 Swedish patients on a 65 item comprehensive psychopathology scale were used to identify the 17 most commonly occurring symptoms in primary depressive illness in the combined sample. Ratings on these 17 items for 64 patients participating in studies of four different antidepressant drugs were used to create a depression scale consisting of the 10 items which showed the largest changes with treatment and the highest correlation to overall change. The inner-rater reliability of the new depression scale was high. Scores on the scale correlated significantly with scores on a standard rating scale for depression, the Hamilton Rating Scale (HRS), indicating its validity as a general severity estimate. Its capacity to differentiate between responders and non-responders to antidepressant treatment was better than the HRS, indicating greater sensitivity to change. The practical and ethical implications in terms of smaller sample sizes in clinical trials are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1038/mp.2009.116
                19918244
                2844942

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