13
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Lipid droplet biogenesis and functions in health and disease

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Ubiquitous yet unique, lipid droplets are intracellular organelles that are increasingly being recognized for their versatility beyond energy storage. Advances uncovering the intricacies of their biogenesis and the diversity of their physiological and pathological roles have yielded new insights into lipid droplet biology. Despite these insights, the mechanisms governing the biogenesis and functions of lipid droplets remain incompletely understood. Moreover, the causal relationship between the biogenesis and function of lipid droplets and human diseases is poorly resolved. Here, we provide an update on the current understanding of the biogenesis and functions of lipid droplets in health and disease, highlighting a key role for lipid droplet biogenesis in alleviating cellular stresses. We also discuss therapeutic strategies of targeting lipid droplet biogenesis, growth or degradation that could be applied in the future to common diseases, such as cancer, hepatic steatosis and viral infection.

          Related collections

          Most cited references328

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Ferroptosis: an iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death.

          Nonapoptotic forms of cell death may facilitate the selective elimination of some tumor cells or be activated in specific pathological states. The oncogenic RAS-selective lethal small molecule erastin triggers a unique iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death that we term ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is dependent upon intracellular iron, but not other metals, and is morphologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct from apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. We identify the small molecule ferrostatin-1 as a potent inhibitor of ferroptosis in cancer cells and glutamate-induced cell death in organotypic rat brain slices, suggesting similarities between these two processes. Indeed, erastin, like glutamate, inhibits cystine uptake by the cystine/glutamate antiporter (system x(c)(-)), creating a void in the antioxidant defenses of the cell and ultimately leading to iron-dependent, oxidative death. Thus, activation of ferroptosis results in the nonapoptotic destruction of certain cancer cells, whereas inhibition of this process may protect organisms from neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            MAFLD: A consensus-driven proposed nomenclature for metabolic associated fatty liver disease

            Fatty liver associated with metabolic dysfunction is common, affects a quarter of the population, and has no approved drug therapy. Although pharmacotherapies are in development, response rates appear modest. The heterogeneous pathogenesis of metabolic fatty liver diseases and inaccuracies in terminology and definitions necessitate a reappraisal of nomenclature to inform clinical trial design and drug development. A group of experts sought to integrate current understanding of patient heterogeneity captured under the acronym nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and provide suggestions on terminology that more accurately reflects pathogenesis and can help in patient stratification for management. Experts reached consensus that NAFLD does not reflect current knowledge, and metabolic (dysfunction) associated fatty liver disease "MAFLD" was suggested as a more appropriate overarching term. This opens the door for efforts from the research community to update the nomenclature and subphenotype the disease to accelerate the translational path to new treatments.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Genetic variation in PNPLA3 confers susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

              Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem of unknown etiology that varies in prevalence among ethnic groups. To identify genetic variants contributing to differences in hepatic fat content, we performed a genome-wide association scan of nonsynonymous sequence variations (n=9,229) in a multiethnic population. An allele in PNPLA3 (rs738409; I148M) was strongly associated with increased hepatic fat levels (P=5.9×10−10) and with hepatic inflammation (P=3.7×10−4). The allele was most common in Hispanics, the group most susceptible to NAFLD; hepatic fat content was > 2-fold higher in PNPLA3-148M homozygotes than in noncarriers. Resequencing revealed another allele associated with lower hepatic fat content in African-Americans, the group at lowest risk of NAFLD. Thus, variation in PNPLA3 contributes to ethnic and inter-individual differences in hepatic fat content and susceptibility to NAFLD.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Nature Reviews Endocrinology
                Nat Rev Endocrinol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1759-5029
                1759-5037
                May 23 2023
                Article
                10.1038/s41574-023-00845-0
                01c2c1dc-2fb0-477a-ade0-a3da55f7d68e
                © 2023

                Free to read

                https://www.springernature.com/gp/researchers/text-and-data-mining

                https://www.springernature.com/gp/researchers/text-and-data-mining

                History

                Comments

                Comment on this article