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      Quantification of three Macrolide Antibiotics in Pharmaceutical lots by HPLC: Development, Validation and Application to a Simultaneous Separation

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          Abstract

          A new validated high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with rapid analysis time and high efficiency, for the analysis of erythromycin, azithromycin and spiramycin, under isocratic conditions with ODB RP 18 as a stationary phase is described. Using an eluent composed of acetonitrile –2-methyl-2-propanol –hydrogenphosphate buffer, pH 6.5, with 1.5% triethylamine (33:7: up to 100, v/v/v), delivered at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL min -1. Ultra Violet (UV) detection is performed at 210 nm. The selectivity is satisfactory enough and no problematic interfering peaks are observed. The procedure is quantitatively characterized and repeatability, linearity, detection and quantification limits are very satisfactory. The method is applied successfully for the assay of the studied drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms as tablets and powder for oral suspension. Recovery experiments revealed recovery of 97.13–100.28%.

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          Identification and quantification of five macrolide antibiotics in several tissues, eggs and milk by liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

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            Sample preparation strategy for the simultaneous determination of macrolide antibiotics in animal feedingstuffs by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD).

            A novel and suitable clean-up method that allows, for the first time, the simultaneous determination of a rather large number of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, rosamicin, spiramycin, tylosin, kitasamycin and josamycin in feedingstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) is presented in this work. The effectiveness of the developed clean-up method allows the quantification of the target macrolides in poultry feed using standard calibration curves instead of matrix matched standards, which overcomes the general problem of finding representative blanks. Furthermore an additional back extraction included in the sample preparation procedure allows the determination of an additional macrolide (oleandomycin) with detection limits, expressed as apparent concentration in poultry feed, ranging from 0.04 to 0.22 mg kg(-1) and relative standard deviation values ranging from 3.6 to 10.1% depending on the target analyte. Moreover, this additional step has been proven to enlarge the scope of the method by the extension of its applicability, at the target level of concentration, to other animal feedingstuffs such as pig and cattle. The analysis of real feedingstuffs containing macrolides demonstrated the fitness for purpose of the whole analytical procedure as well as a good fitting between real and spiked samples. The proposed methods appeared therefore as a sound alternative in the frame of control (e.g. for post-screening purposes) and/or monitoring surveillance programmes at the target level of 1.0 mg kg(-1) established according to the reported lowest dosage of additive needed to lead a growth promoting effect.
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              Spectrofluorimetric analysis of certain macrolide antibiotics in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.

              The macrolides (erythromycin, erythromycin esters, azithromycin dihydrate, clarithromycin and roxithromycin) can be analyzed by a simple spectrofluorimetric method based on the oxidation by cerium(VI) in the presence of sulphuric acid and monitoring the fluorescence of cerium(III) formed at lambda(ex) 255 nm and lambda(em) 348 nm. All variables affecting the reaction conditions as cerium(VI), sulphuric acid concentrations, heating time, temperature and dilution solvents were carefully studied. Linear calibration graphs were obtained in the range of 42.6-1200 ng ml(-1) with a percentage relative standard deviation in the range of 0.014-0.058%. Quantitation and detection limits were calculated. The method was applied successfully for the assay of the studied drugs in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms as tablets, capsules and suspension. Recovery experiments revealed recovery of 98.3-100.8%. The effect of potential interference due to common ingredients as glucose, sucrose, lactose, citric acid, and propylene glycol was investigated. Applying standard addition method shows a recovery of 97.7-100.9% macrolide antibiotics from their corresponding dosage forms.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [a ]Laboratory of Research on Bioactive Products and Biomass Valorization (LRPBVB), Ecole Normale Supérieure–Kouba, P.O. Box 92, Kouba, 16050, Algiers, Algeria
                [b ]Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turin, S. Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Regione Gonzole 10, 10043 Orbassano (TO), Italy
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author. Tel.:+213–21–2975–11 Fax:+213–21–2820–67 E-mail: mahmoudi_a2003@ 123456yahoo.fr
                Journal
                BJPharm
                British Journal of Pharmacy
                University of Huddersfield Press
                2058-8356
                14 November 2016
                : 1
                : 1
                : 63-73
                10.5920/bjpharm.2016.03
                © 2016, A. Mahmoudi, Silvia De Francia, M.S. Boukhechem, Elisa Pirro

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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