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      Pressure passivity of cerebral mitochondrial metabolism is associated with poor outcome following perinatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury.

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          Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Impaired autoregulation after hypoxia-ischaemia has been suggested to contribute further to injury. Thalamic lactate/N-Acetylasperate (Lac/NAA) peak area ratio of > 0.3 on proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is associated with poor neurodevelopment outcome following HIE. Cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO) plays a central role in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and ATP synthesis. Using a novel broadband NIRS system, we investigated the impact of pressure passivity of cerebral metabolism (CCO), oxygenation (haemoglobin difference (HbD)) and cerebral blood volume (total haemoglobin (HbT)) in 23 term infants following HIE during therapeutic hypothermia (HT). Sixty-minute epochs of data from each infant were studied using wavelet analysis at a mean age of 48 h. Wavelet semblance (a measure of phase difference) was calculated to compare reactivity between mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) with oxCCO, HbD and HbT. OxCCO-MABP semblance correlated with thalamic Lac/NAA ( r = 0.48, p = 0.02). OxCCO-MABP semblance also differed between groups of infants with mild to moderate and severe injury measured using brain MRI score ( p = 0.04), thalamic Lac/NAA ( p = 0.04) and neurodevelopmental outcome at one year ( p = 0.04). Pressure passive changes in cerebral metabolism were associated with injury severity indicated by thalamic Lac/NAA, MRI scores and neurodevelopmental assessment at one year of age.

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            How to detect and reduce movement artifacts in near-infrared imaging using moving standard deviation and spline interpolation.

            Near-infrared imaging (NIRI) is a neuroimaging technique which enables us to non-invasively measure hemodynamic changes in the human brain. Since the technique is very sensitive, the movement of a subject can cause movement artifacts (MAs), which affect the signal quality and results to a high degree. No general method is yet available to reduce these MAs effectively. The aim was to develop a new MA reduction method. A method based on moving standard deviation and spline interpolation was developed. It enables the semi-automatic detection and reduction of MAs in the data. It was validated using simulated and real NIRI signals. The results show that a significant reduction of MAs and an increase in signal quality are achieved. The effectiveness and usability of the method is demonstrated by the improved detection of evoked hemodynamic responses. The present method can not only be used in the postprocessing of NIRI signals but also for other kinds of data containing artifacts, for example ECG or EEG signals.
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              Java-based graphical user interface for MRUI, a software package for quantitation of in vivo/medical magnetic resonance spectroscopy signals.

              This article describes a Java-based graphical user interface for the magnetic resonance user interface (MRUI) quantitation package. This package allows MR spectroscopists to easily perform time-domain analysis of in vivo/medical MR spectroscopy data. We have found that the Java programming language is very well suited for developing highly interactive graphical software applications such as the MRUI system. We also have established that MR quantitation algorithms, programmed in the past in other languages, can easily be embedded into the Java-based MRUI by using the Java native interface (JNI).

                Author and article information

                J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
                Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
                SAGE Publications
                Jan 01 2017
                [1 ] 1 Institute for Women's Health, University College London, London, UK.
                [2 ] 2 Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, UK.
                [3 ] 3 Neurocritical Care, 98546 National Hospital for Neurology & Neurosurgery , University College London, London, UK.
                [4 ] 4 Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK.
                [5 ] 5 Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, 8964 University College London Hospital , London, UK.
                [6 ] 6 Neonatal Unit, University College London Hospital, London, UK.


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