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Vaccine delivery system for tuberculosis based on nano-sized hepatitis B virus core protein particles

International Journal of Nanomedicine

Dove Medical Press

vaccine delivery, mycobacterium tuberculosis, vlp, hepatitis b virus core particle, cfp-10, self-adjuvant

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      Abstract

      Nano-sized hepatitis B virus core virus-like particles (HBc-VLP) are suitable for uptake by antigen-presenting cells. Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) is an important vaccine candidate against tuberculosis. The purified antigen shows low immune response without adjuvant and tends to have low protective efficacy. The present study is based on the assumption that expression of these proteins on HBc nanoparticles would provide higher protection when compared to the native antigen alone. The cfp-10 gene was expressed as a fusion on the major immunodominant region of HBc-VLP, and the immune response in Balb/c mice was studied and compared to pure proteins, a mixture of antigens, and fusion protein-VLP, all without using any adjuvant. The humoral, cytokine, and splenocyte cell proliferation responses suggested that the HBc-VLP bearing CFP-10 generated an antigen-specific immune response in a Th1-dependent manner. By virtue of its self-adjuvant nature and ability to form nano-sized particles, HBc-VLPs are an excellent vaccine delivery system for use with subunit protein antigens identified in the course of recent vaccine research.

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      Most cited references 58

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      An essential role for interferon gamma in resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

      Tuberculosis, a major health problem in developing countries, has reemerged in recent years in many industrialized countries. The increased susceptibility of immunocompromised individuals to tuberculosis, and many experimental studies indicate that T cell- mediated immunity plays an important role in resistance. The lymphokine interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) is thought to be a principal mediator of macrophage activation and resistance to intracellular pathogens. Mice have been developed which fail to produce IFN-gamma (gko), because of a targeted disruption of the gene for IFN-gamma. Upon infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, although they develop granulomas, gko mice fail to produce reactive nitrogen intermediates and are unable to restrict the growth of the bacilli. In contrast to control mice, gko mice exhibit heightened tissue necrosis and succumb to a rapid and fatal course of tuberculosis that could be delayed, but not prevented, by treatment with exogenous recombinant IFN-gamma.
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        Vaccine delivery: a matter of size, geometry, kinetics and molecular patterns.

        Researchers working on the development of vaccines face an inherent dilemma: to maximize immunogenicity without compromising safety and tolerability. Early vaccines often induced long-lived protective immune responses, but tolerability was a major problem. Newer vaccines have very few side effects but can be of limited immunogenicity. One way to tackle this problem is to design vaccines that have all the properties of pathogens with the exception of causing disease. Key features of pathogens that can be mimicked by vaccine delivery systems are their size, shape and surface molecule organization. In addition, pathogen-associated molecular patterns can be used to induce innate immune responses that promote adaptive immunity. In this Review, we discuss the approaches currently being used to optimize the delivery of antigens and enhance vaccine efficacy.
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          Efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosis. Meta-analysis of the published literature.

          To quantify the efficacy of BCG vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). MEDLINE with index terms BCG vaccine, tuberculosis, and human. Experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, among others, provided lists of all known studies. A total of 1264 articles or abstracts were reviewed for details on BCG vaccination, concurrent vaccinated and unvaccinated groups, and TB outcome; 70 articles were reviewed in depth for method of vaccine allocation used to create comparable groups, equal surveillance and follow-up for recipient and concurrent control groups, and outcome measures of TB cases and/or deaths. Fourteen prospective trials and 12 case-control studies were included in the analysis. We recorded study design, age range of study population, number of patients enrolled, efficacy of vaccine, and items to assess the potential for bias in study design and diagnosis. At least two readers independently extracted data and evaluated validity. The relative risk (RR) or odds ratio (OR) of TB provided the measure of vaccine efficacy that we analyzed. The protective effect was then computed by 1-RR or 1-OR. A random-effects model estimated a weighted average RR or OR from those provided by the trials or case-control studies. In the trials, the RR of TB was 0.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.70) for vaccine recipients compared with nonrecipients (protective effect of 51%). In the case-control studies, the OR for TB was 0.50 (95% CI, 0.39 to 0.64), or a 50% protective effect. Seven trials reporting tuberculous deaths showed a protective effect from BCG vaccine of 71% (RR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.53), and five studies reporting on meningitis showed a protective effect from BCG vaccine of 64% (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.70). Geographic latitude of the study site and study validity score explained 66% of the heterogeneity among trials in a random-effects regression model. On average, BCG vaccine significantly reduces the risk of TB by 50%. Protection is observed across many populations, study designs, and forms of TB. Age at vaccination did not enhance predictiveness of BCG efficacy. Protection against tuberculous death, meningitis, and disseminated disease is higher than for total TB cases, although this result may reflect reduced error in disease classification rather than greater BCG efficacy.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            23486691
            3592552
            10.2147/IJN.S40238

            https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

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