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      Combination therapy for treatment of infections with gram-negative bacteria.

      Clinical microbiology reviews
      Aminoglycosides, therapeutic use, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Clinical Trials as Topic, Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial, Drug Synergism, Drug Therapy, Combination, Fluoroquinolones, Gram-Negative Bacteria, pathogenicity, Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections, complications, drug therapy, microbiology, Humans, Neutropenia, Treatment Outcome, beta-Lactams

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          Combination antibiotic therapy for invasive infections with Gram-negative bacteria is employed in many health care facilities, especially for certain subgroups of patients, including those with neutropenia, those with infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, those with ventilator-associated pneumonia, and the severely ill. An argument can be made for empiric combination therapy, as we are witnessing a rise in infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. The wisdom of continued combination therapy after an organism is isolated and antimicrobial susceptibility data are known, however, is more controversial. The available evidence suggests that the greatest benefit of combination antibiotic therapy stems from the increased likelihood of choosing an effective agent during empiric therapy, rather than exploitation of in vitro synergy or the prevention of resistance during definitive treatment. In this review, we summarize the available data comparing monotherapy versus combination antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of infections with Gram-negative bacteria.

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