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      Expert and exceptional performance: evidence of maximal adaptation to task constraints.

      1 ,
      Annual review of psychology
      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          Expert and exceptional performance are shown to be mediated by cognitive and perceptual-motor skills and by domain-specific physiological and anatomical adaptations. The highest levels of human performance in different domains can only be attained after around ten years of extended, daily amounts of deliberate practice activities. Laboratory analyses of expert performance in many domains such as chess, medicine, auditing, computer programming, bridge, physics, sports, typing, juggling, dance, and music reveal maximal adaptations of experts to domain-specific constraints. For example, acquired anticipatory skills circumvent general limits on reaction time, and distinctive memory skills allow a domain-specific expansion of working memory capacity to support planning, reasoning, and evaluation. Many of the mechanisms of superior expert performance serve the dual purpose of mediating experts' current performance and of allowing continued improvement of this performance in response to informative feedback during practice activities.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Annu Rev Psychol
          Annual review of psychology
          Annual Reviews
          0066-4308
          0066-4308
          1996
          : 47
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-1051, USA.
          Article
          10.1146/annurev.psych.47.1.273
          15012483
          823dec62-00cf-49c8-8921-7d65697deedc
          History

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