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      Defining and understanding dyslexia: past, present and future

      research-article
      a , b , c
      Oxford Review of Education
      Routledge
      Dyslexia, reading disorder, reading difficulties, history, definition

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          ABSTRACT

          Dyslexia is a difficulty in learning to decode (read aloud) and to spell. DSM5 classifies dyslexia as one form of neurodevelopmental disorder. Neurodevelopmental disorders are heritable, life-long conditions with early onset. For many years, research on dyslexia proceeded on the basis that it was a specific learning difficulty – specific meaning that the difficulty could not be explained in terms of obvious causes such as sensory problems or general learning difficulties (low IQ). However, the failure to find qualitative differences in reading, and phonological skills, between children with dyslexia and children with more general learning problems led this kind of ‘discrepancy’ definition to fall from favour. The Rose Review stated that dyslexia can occur across the IQ range and that poor decoding skills require the same kinds of intervention irrespective of IQ. In this paper, we argue that loosening the criteria for dyslexia has influenced common understanding of the condition and led to diagnostic confusion. In the longer term, the use of the term may need to change. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

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          Most cited references38

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          Phase 2 of CATALISE: a multinational and multidisciplinary Delphi consensus study of problems with language development: Terminology

          Background Lack of agreement about criteria and terminology for children's language problems affects access to services as well as hindering research and practice. We report the second phase of a study using an online Delphi method to address these issues. In the first phase, we focused on criteria for language disorder. Here we consider terminology. Methods The Delphi method is an iterative process in which an initial set of statements is rated by a panel of experts, who then have the opportunity to view anonymised ratings from other panel members. On this basis they can either revise their views or make a case for their position. The statements are then revised based on panel feedback, and again rated by and commented on by the panel. In this study, feedback from a second round was used to prepare a final set of statements in narrative form. The panel included 57 individuals representing a range of professions and nationalities. Results We achieved at least 78% agreement for 19 of 21 statements within two rounds of ratings. These were collapsed into 12 statements for the final consensus reported here. The term ‘Language Disorder’ is recommended to refer to a profile of difficulties that causes functional impairment in everyday life and is associated with poor prognosis. The term, ‘Developmental Language Disorder’ (DLD) was endorsed for use when the language disorder was not associated with a known biomedical aetiology. It was also agreed that (a) presence of risk factors (neurobiological or environmental) does not preclude a diagnosis of DLD, (b) DLD can co‐occur with other neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. ADHD) and (c) DLD does not require a mismatch between verbal and nonverbal ability. Conclusions This Delphi exercise highlights reasons for disagreements about terminology for language disorders and proposes standard definitions and nomenclature.
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            Comorbidity

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              Phenotypic performance profile of children with reading disabilities: A regression-based test of the phonological-core variable-difference model.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oxf Rev Educ
                Oxf Rev Educ
                Oxford Review of Education
                Routledge
                0305-4985
                1465-3915
                13 August 2020
                2020
                : 46
                : 4 , The Problem of Dyslexia: historical perspectives
                : 501-513
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Experimental Psychology and St John’s College, University of Oxford; , Oxford, UK
                [b ]Department of Education, University of Oxford; , Oxford, UK
                [c ]Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford; , Oxford, UK
                Author notes
                CONTACT Margaret J. Snowling maggie.snowling@ 123456sjc.ox.ac.uk Department of Experimental Psychology and St John’s College, University of Oxford; , OxfordOX1 3JP, UK
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0836-3861
                Article
                1765756
                10.1080/03054985.2020.1765756
                7455053
                32939103
                015807dd-4f93-4c1c-ade1-f81d214bcd5a
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.

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                Page count
                Figures: 0, References: 63, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Research Article

                dyslexia,reading disorder,reading difficulties,history,definition

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