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      Cytogenetic follow-up by karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization: implications for monitoring patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and deletion 5q treated with lenalidomide.

      Karyotyping, therapeutic use, Chromosome Deletion, Thalidomide, Antineoplastic Agents, Humans, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Prognosis, In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence, diagnosis, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5, genetics, Survival Rate, Risk Factors, Cohort Studies, Follow-Up Studies, drug therapy, analogs & derivatives, Remission Induction

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          In patients with low and intermediate risk myelodysplastic syndrome and deletion 5q (del(5q)) treated with lenalidomide, monitoring of cytogenetic response is mandatory, since patients without cytogenetic response have a significantly increased risk of progression. Therefore, we have reviewed cytogenetic data of 302 patients. Patients were analyzed by karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In 85 patients, del(5q) was only detected by karyotyping. In 8 patients undergoing karyotypic evolution, the del(5q) and additional chromosomal aberrations were only detected by karyotyping. In 3 patients, del(5q) was only detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization, but not by karyotyping due to a low number of metaphases. Karyotyping was significantly more sensitive than fluorescence in situ hybridization in detecting the del(5q) clone. In conclusion, to optimize therapy control of myelodysplastic syndrome patients with del(5q) treated with lenalidomide and to identify cytogenetic non-response or progression as early as possible, fluorescence in situ hybridization alone is inadequate for evaluation. Karyotyping must be performed to optimally evaluate response.

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