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      Short Term Effect of Corona Virus Diseases Vaccine on the Menstrual Cycles

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          Abstract

          Background

          The latest threat to world health is coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), and the exact death rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection is still to be explored and varies widely throughout the world. Inactivated virus vaccines, recombinant viral vaccines, subunit vaccines, DNA vaccines, and attenuated vaccinations have all been investigated in the hunt for an optimal SARS-CoV vaccine. Some women had menstrual abnormalities after immunisation, including heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia), frequent bleeding (metrorrhagia/polymenorrhea), and postmenopausal haemorrhage. Vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia might be one of the underlying reasons.

          Purpose

          The aim to carry out this study was to survey by recruiting the female participants who were vaccinated with one or two shots of the available vaccine and observe short-term menstrual changes.

          Patients and Methods

          This web-based survey cross-sectional study included women who were above 18 years, had the vaccine at least one month (one menstrual period) before participating in the study, had access to social media platforms and were willing to take part in the study. Women were excluded if, at the time of the study, they were pregnant or had amenorrhea of more than 6 months.

          Results

          Analysing the menstrual flow more, we saw that 24.5% of the patients had increased flow, while 15.5% had reduced flow which for both changes in the flow, the p-value was 0.017. However, 23.65 showed delayed periods, and 51.6% showed no changes. The changes in the timing were significant, indicating a p-value of 0.008. The study will be a significant contribution to the literature as this pandemic is new, and the vaccination against COVID-19 is still in the trial phase.

          Conclusion

          We observed in our study that there was a change in the menstruation timings and flow after vaccination. However, further longitudinal studies are needed to conclude the impact of the COVID-19 vaccine on the menstruation cycle.

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          Most cited references26

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          Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding

          Summary Background In late December, 2019, patients presenting with viral pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, China. A novel coronavirus was subsequently identified as the causative pathogen, provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). As of Jan 26, 2020, more than 2000 cases of 2019-nCoV infection have been confirmed, most of which involved people living in or visiting Wuhan, and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed. Methods We did next-generation sequencing of samples from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cultured isolates from nine inpatients, eight of whom had visited the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan. Complete and partial 2019-nCoV genome sequences were obtained from these individuals. Viral contigs were connected using Sanger sequencing to obtain the full-length genomes, with the terminal regions determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Phylogenetic analysis of these 2019-nCoV genomes and those of other coronaviruses was used to determine the evolutionary history of the virus and help infer its likely origin. Homology modelling was done to explore the likely receptor-binding properties of the virus. Findings The ten genome sequences of 2019-nCoV obtained from the nine patients were extremely similar, exhibiting more than 99·98% sequence identity. Notably, 2019-nCoV was closely related (with 88% identity) to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, collected in 2018 in Zhoushan, eastern China, but were more distant from SARS-CoV (about 79%) and MERS-CoV (about 50%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 2019-nCoV fell within the subgenus Sarbecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus, with a relatively long branch length to its closest relatives bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, and was genetically distinct from SARS-CoV. Notably, homology modelling revealed that 2019-nCoV had a similar receptor-binding domain structure to that of SARS-CoV, despite amino acid variation at some key residues. Interpretation 2019-nCoV is sufficiently divergent from SARS-CoV to be considered a new human-infecting betacoronavirus. Although our phylogenetic analysis suggests that bats might be the original host of this virus, an animal sold at the seafood market in Wuhan might represent an intermediate host facilitating the emergence of the virus in humans. Importantly, structural analysis suggests that 2019-nCoV might be able to bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in humans. The future evolution, adaptation, and spread of this virus warrant urgent investigation. Funding National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shandong First Medical University.
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            Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China

            Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impacts and psychiatric symptoms during the epidemic. The aim of this study was to survey the general public in China to better understand their levels of psychological impact, anxiety, depression, and stress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. The data will be used for future reference. Methods: From 31 January to 2 February 2020, we conducted an online survey using snowball sampling techniques. The online survey collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms in the past 14 days, contact history with COVID-19, knowledge and concerns about COVID-19, precautionary measures against COVID-19, and additional information required with respect to COVID-19. Psychological impact was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: This study included 1210 respondents from 194 cities in China. In total, 53.8% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate or severe; 16.5% reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms; and 8.1% reported moderate to severe stress levels. Most respondents spent 20–24 h per day at home (84.7%); were worried about their family members contracting COVID-19 (75.2%); and were satisfied with the amount of health information available (75.1%). Female gender, student status, specific physical symptoms (e.g., myalgia, dizziness, coryza), and poor self-rated health status were significantly associated with a greater psychological impact of the outbreak and higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Specific up-to-date and accurate health information (e.g., treatment, local outbreak situation) and particular precautionary measures (e.g., hand hygiene, wearing a mask) were associated with a lower psychological impact of the outbreak and lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Conclusions: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, more than half of the respondents rated the psychological impact as moderate-to-severe, and about one-third reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.
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              The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Womens Health
                Int J Womens Health
                ijwh
                International Journal of Women's Health
                Dove
                1179-1411
                19 September 2022
                2022
                : 14
                : 1385-1394
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Medicine, Al Balqa Applied University , Al Salt, Jordan
                [2 ]Faculty of Medicine, Al-Yarmouk University , Irbid, Jordan
                [3 ]Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University Hospital , Amman, Jordan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Lama M M Al-Mehaisen, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine – Al Balqa Applied University , B O Box 206, Al Salt, Jordan, Tel +96253491111, Email lmehaisen@bau.edu.jo
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7649-5220
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3049-3806
                Article
                376950
                10.2147/IJWH.S376950
                9507976
                36164386
                0312dd60-77a0-42e2-9d51-dc34fe9d4491
                © 2022 M M Al-Mehaisen et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                History
                : 02 June 2022
                : 08 September 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, References: 29, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Research

                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                covid-19,menstrual abnormalities,menstrual changes,menstrual flow,short-term effect,vaccination

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