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      Modulation Doping of Silicon using Aluminium-induced Acceptor States in Silicon Dioxide

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          Abstract

          All electronic, optoelectronic or photovoltaic applications of silicon depend on controlling majority charge carriers via doping with impurity atoms. Nanoscale silicon is omnipresent in fundamental research (quantum dots, nanowires) but also approached in future technology nodes of the microelectronics industry. In general, silicon nanovolumes, irrespective of their intended purpose, suffer from effects that impede conventional doping due to fundamental physical principles such as out-diffusion, statistics of small numbers, quantum- or dielectric confinement. In analogy to the concept of modulation doping, originally invented for III-V semiconductors, we demonstrate a heterostructure modulation doping method for silicon. Our approach utilizes a specific acceptor state of aluminium atoms in silicon dioxide to generate holes as majority carriers in adjacent silicon. By relocating the dopants from silicon to silicon dioxide, Si nanoscale doping problems are circumvented. In addition, the concept of aluminium-induced acceptor states for passivating hole selective tunnelling contacts as required for high-efficiency photovoltaics is presented and corroborated by first carrier lifetime and tunnelling current measurements.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Self-consistent molecular orbital methods. XXIII. A polarization-type basis set for second-row elements

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            Nanowire transistors without junctions.

            All existing transistors are based on the use of semiconductor junctions formed by introducing dopant atoms into the semiconductor material. As the distance between junctions in modern devices drops below 10 nm, extraordinarily high doping concentration gradients become necessary. Because of the laws of diffusion and the statistical nature of the distribution of the doping atoms, such junctions represent an increasingly difficult fabrication challenge for the semiconductor industry. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new type of transistor in which there are no junctions and no doping concentration gradients. These devices have full CMOS functionality and are made using silicon nanowires. They have near-ideal subthreshold slope, extremely low leakage currents, and less degradation of mobility with gate voltage and temperature than classical transistors.
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              Development of New a-Si/c-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells: ACJ-HIT (Artificially Constructed Junction-Heterojunction with Intrinsic Thin-Layer)

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                20 April 2017
                2017
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Integrated Materials Design Centre (IMDC) , UNSW, Sydney, Australia
                [2 ]School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering (SPREE) , UNSW, Sydney, Australia
                [3 ]Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Dept. of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg , Germany
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                srep46703
                10.1038/srep46703
                5397979
                28425460
                Copyright © 2017, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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