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      Protease Activity Increases in Plasma, Peritoneal Fluid, and Vital Organs after Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats

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          Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is associated with high mortality. A severe decrease in blood pressure causes the intestine, a major site of digestive enzymes, to become permeable – possibly releasing those enzymes into the circulation and peritoneal space, where they may in turn activate other enzymes, e.g. matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). If uncontrolled, these enzymes may result in pathophysiologic cleavage of receptors or plasma proteins. Our first objective was to determine, in compartments outside of the intestine (plasma, peritoneal fluid, brain, heart, liver, and lung) protease activities and select protease concentrations after hemorrhagic shock (2 hours ischemia, 2 hours reperfusion). Our second objective was to determine whether inhibition of proteases in the intestinal lumen with a serine protease inhibitor (ANGD), a process that improves survival after shock in rats, reduces the protease activities distant from the intestine. To determine the protease activity, plasma and peritoneal fluid were incubated with small peptide substrates for trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, and elastase-like activities or with casein, a substrate cleaved by multiple proteases. Gelatinase activities were determined by gelatin gel zymography and a specific MMP-9 substrate. Immunoblotting was used to confirm elevated pancreatic trypsin in plasma, peritoneal fluid, and lung and MMP-9 concentrations in all samples after hemorrhagic shock. Caseinolytic, trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, elastase-like, and MMP-9 activities were all significantly (p<0.05) upregulated after hemorrhagic shock regardless of enteral pretreatment with ANGD. Pancreatic trypsin was detected by immunoblot in the plasma, peritoneal space, and lungs after hemorrhagic shock. MMP-9 concentrations and activities were significantly upregulated after hemorrhagic shock in plasma, peritoneal fluid, heart, liver, and lung. These results indicate that protease activities, including that of trypsin, increase in sites distant from the intestine after hemorrhagic shock. Proteases, including pancreatic proteases, may be shock mediators and potential targets for therapy in shock.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Shedding of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2, MMP-9, and MT1-MMP as membrane vesicle-associated components by endothelial cells.

          Production of matrix-degrading proteases, particularly matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), by endothelial cells is a critical event during angiogenesis, the process of vessel neoformation that occurs in normal and pathological conditions. MMPs are known to be highly regulated at the level of synthesis and activation, however, little is known about the regulation of MMP secretion by endothelial cells. We found that cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells shed vesicles (300 to 600 nm) originating from localized areas of the cell plasma membrane, as revealed by ultrastructural analysis. Normal and reverse zymography, Western blot, and immunogold analyses of the vesicles showed two gelatinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, in both the active and proenzyme forms, the MT1-MMP proenzyme located on the external side of the vesicle membrane and the two inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Serum and the angiogenic factors, fibroblast growth factor-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor, stimulated the shedding of MMPs as vesicle components. Shedding the vesicle was rapid, as it was already completed after 4 hours. Addition of shed vesicles to human umbilical vein endothelial cells resulted in autocrine stimulation of invasion through a layer of reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel) and cord formation on Matrigel. We conclude that endothelial cells shed MMP-containing vesicles and this may be a mechanism for regulating focalized proteolytic activity vital to invasive and morphogenic events during angiogenesis.
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            Generation of biologically active IL-1 beta by matrix metalloproteinases: a novel caspase-1-independent pathway of IL-1 beta processing.

            Biologic activity of IL-1 beta requires processing of the inactive precursor, a function generally ascribed to IL-1 beta-converting enzyme (caspase-1). However, alternative mechanisms of IL-1 beta activation have been postulated in local inflammatory reactions. Expression of IL-1 beta and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) frequently occurs simultaneously at sites of inflammation. We describe here that stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), as well as the gelatinases A (MMP-2) and B (MMP-9), processes recombinant human IL-1 beta precursor (pIL-1 beta) into biologically active forms. Detection of both pIL-1 beta processing and biologic IL-1 beta activity demonstrated different processing capacities of the respective MMPs. Conversion of pIL-1 beta by stromelysin-1 required coincubation for at least 1 h, and biologic activity faded after 8 h to 24 h. Gelatinase A was less effective in processing pIL-1 beta, requiring at least 24 h of coincubation. In contrast, gelatinase B processed pIL-1 beta within minutes, resulting in immunoreactive products as well as biologic activity stable for 72 h. In addition, prolonged incubation of mature IL-1 beta with stromelysin-1, and to a lesser extent also with gelatinases, but not with interstitial collagenase, resulted in the degradation of mature IL-1 beta. None of the MMPs processed the second isoform of IL-1, IL-1 alpha. The present study indicates a biphasic regulation of IL-1 beta activity by MMPs: a caspase-1-independent pathway of IL-1 beta activation and inhibition of IL-1 beta activity by degrading the mature cytokine. The balance of the respective MMPs and pIL-1 beta might regulate the long term appearance of IL-1 beta activity at sites of acute or chronic inflammation.
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              Signal transduction by protease-activated receptors.

              The family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitutes the largest class of signalling receptors in the human genome, controlling vast physiological responses and are the target of many drugs. After activation, GPCRs are rapidly desensitized by phosphorylation and beta-arrestin binding. Most classic GPCRs are internalized through a clathrin, dynamin and beta-arrestin-dependent pathway and then recycled back to the cell surface or sorted to lysosomes for degradation. Given the vast number and diversity of GPCRs, different mechanisms are likely to exist to precisely regulate the magnitude, duration and spatial aspects of receptor signalling. The G protein-coupled protease-activated receptors (PARs) provide elegant examples of GPCRs that are regulated by distinct desensitization and endocytic sorting mechanisms, processes that are critically important for the spatial and temporal fidelity of PAR signalling. PARs are irreversibly activated through proteolytic cleavage and transmit cellular responses to extracellular proteases. Activated PAR(1) internalizes through a clathrin- and dynamin-dependent pathway independent of beta-arrestins. Interestingly, PAR(1) is basally ubiquitinated and deubiquitinated after activation and traffics from endosomes to lysosomes independent of ubiquitination. In contrast, beta-arrestins mediate activated PAR(2) internalization and function as scaffolds that promote signalling from endocytic vesicles. Moreover, activated PAR(2) is modified with ubiquitin, which facilitates lysosomal degradation. Activated PARs also adopt distinct active conformations that signal to diverse effectors and are likely regulated by different mechanisms. Thus, the identification of the molecular machinery important for PAR signal regulation will enable the development of new strategies to manipulate receptor signalling and will provide novel targets for the development of drugs.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                27 March 2012
                : 7
                : 3
                Altshuler et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Pages: 11
                Research Article
                Anatomy and Physiology
                Cardiovascular System
                Digestive System
                Anatomy and Physiology
                Digestive System
                Critical Care and Emergency Medicine
                Gastroenterology and Hepatology



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