This study examined effects of applicants' personality and gender on faculty rankings and matching to an Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMS) residency program. Forty-seven applicants completed a standardized personality measure (Adjective Check List, ACL), and faculty interviewers rated each applicant on five personality dimensions during their onsite interview. Applicants were found to be similar to the normative population on all ACL personality dimensions, indicating that there is no distinctive personality profile characteristic of individuals seeking an OMS residency position. Male applicants were rated by interviewers as being more capable of dealing with stress effectively and more affiliative and deferent to authority than female applicants. Applicant ACL scores were unrelated to faculty rankings, but applicants rated as more friendly, motivated, assertive, confident, and tolerant of stress received more favorable rankings. Compared to applicants who did not match at this site, matched applicants were more likely to seek emotional support from others and were rated as being more assertive. Study limitations as well as implications for the use of personality measures and interviews in the selection of OMS residency candidates are discussed.