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A Comparison of the In Vitro Inhibitory Effects of Thelephoric Acid and SKF-525A on Human Cytochrome P450 Activity

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      Abstract

      Thelephoric acid is an antioxidant produced by the hydrolysis of polyozellin, which is isolated from Polyozellus multiplex. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of polyozellin and thelephoric acid on 9 cytochrome P450 (CYP) family members (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4) were examined in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) using a cocktail probe assay. Polyozellin exhibited weak inhibitory effects on the activities of all 9 CYPs examined, whereas thelephoric acid exhibited dose- and time-dependent inhibition of all 9 CYP isoforms (IC 50 values, 3.2–33.7 μM). Dixon plots of CYP inhibition indicated that thelephoric acid was a competitive inhibitor of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4. In contrast, thelephoric acid was a noncompetitive inhibitor of CYP2D6. Our findings indicate that thelephoric acid may be a novel, non-specific CYP inhibitor, suggesting that it could replace SKF-525A in inhibitory studies designed to investigate the effects of CYP enzymes on the metabolism of given compounds.

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      Insights into the substrate specificity, inhibitors, regulation, and polymorphisms and the clinical impact of human cytochrome P450 1A2.

      Human CYP1A2 is one of the major CYPs in human liver and metabolizes a variety of clinically important drugs (e.g., clozapine, tacrine, tizanidine, and theophylline), a number of procarcinogens (e.g. benzo[a]pyrene and aflatoxin B(1)), and several important endogenous compounds (e.g. steroids and arachidonic acids). Like many of other CYPs, CYP1A2 is subject to induction and inhibition by a number of compounds, which may provide an explanation for some drug interactions observed in clinical practice. A large interindividual variability in the expression and activity of CYP1A2 and elimination of drugs that are mainly metabolized by CYP1A2 has been observed, which is largely caused by genetic (e.g., SNPs) and epigenetic (e.g., DNA methylation) and environmental factors (e.g., smoking and comedication). CYP1A2 is primarily regulated by the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and CYP1A2 is induced through AhR-mediated transactivation following ligand binding and nuclear translocation. To date, more than 15 variant alleles and a series of subvariants of the CYP1A2 gene have been identified and some of they have been associated with altered drug clearance and response to drug therapy. For example, lack of response to clozapine therapy due to low plasma drug levels has been reported in smokers harboring the -163A/A genotype; there is an association between CYP1A2*1F (-163C>A) allele and the risk for leflunomide-induced host toxicity. The *1F allele is associated with increased enzyme inducibility whereas *1C causes reduced inducibility. Further studies are warranted to explore the clinical and toxicological significance of altered CYP1A2 expression and activity caused by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors.
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        Structures of human cytochrome P-450 2E1. Insights into the binding of inhibitors and both small molecular weight and fatty acid substrates.

        Human microsomal cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) monooxygenates > 70 low molecular weight xenobiotic compounds, as well as much larger endogenous fatty acid signaling molecules such as arachidonic acid. In the process, CYP2E1 can generate toxic or carcinogenic compounds, as occurs with acetaminophen overdose, nitrosamines in cigarette smoke, and reactive oxygen species from uncoupled catalysis. Thus, the diverse roles that CYP2E1 has in normal physiology, toxicity, and drug metabolism are related to its ability to metabolize diverse classes of ligands, but the structural basis for this was previously unknown. Structures of human CYP2E1 have been solved to 2.2 angstroms for an indazole complex and 2.6 angstroms for a 4-methylpyrazole complex. Both inhibitors bind to the heme iron and hydrogen bond to Thr303 within the active site. Complementing its small molecular weight substrates, the hydrophobic CYP2E1 active site is the smallest yet observed for a human cytochrome P-450. The CYP2E1 active site also has two adjacent voids: one enclosed above the I helix and the other forming a channel to the protein surface. Minor repositioning of the Phe478 aromatic ring that separates the active site and access channel would allow the carboxylate of fatty acid substrates to interact with conserved 216QXXNN220 residues in the access channel while positioning the hydrocarbon terminus in the active site, consistent with experimentally observed omega-1 hydroxylation of saturated fatty acids. Thus, these structures provide insights into the ability of CYP2E1 to effectively bind and metabolize both small molecule substrates and fatty acids.
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          Structures of human microsomal cytochrome P450 2A6 complexed with coumarin and methoxsalen.

          Human microsomal cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) contributes extensively to nicotine detoxication but also activates tobacco-specific procarcinogens to mutagenic products. The CYP2A6 structure shows a compact, hydrophobic active site with one hydrogen bond donor, Asn297, that orients coumarin for regioselective oxidation. The inhibitor methoxsalen effectively fills the active site cavity without substantially perturbing the structure. The structure should aid the design of inhibitors to reduce smoking and tobacco-related cancers.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Republic of Korea
            [2 ]College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeungsan 712-749, Republic of Korea
            Author notes
            [* ]Corresponding Author: E-mail: sangkyu@ 123456knu.ac.kr , Tel: +82-53-950-8571, Fax: +82-53-950-8557
            Journal
            Biomol Ther (Seoul)
            Biomol Ther (Seoul)
            Biomol Ther (Seoul)
            ksp
            Biomolecules & Therapeutics
            The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
            1976-9148
            2005-4483
            March 2014
            : 22
            : 2
            : 155-160
            24753822
            3975472
            10.4062/biomolther.2013.107
            bt22-2-0155
            Copyright © 2014 The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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