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      Serum Lipid, Vitamin D Levels, and Obesity in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women in Non-Manual Employment


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          Increasing age, increased body mass index (BMI), and abnormal lipid profiles contribute to an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. Women who have a perimenopausal and postmenopausal reduction in estrogen levels are a high-risk group for vitamin D deficiency. The aims of this study were to compare the serum vitamin D levels, lipid profile, and BMI between perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in non-manual employment, and to determine whether there were any interdependent factors.


          Three hundred women in non-manual employment, aged between 44–66 years, were divided into three groups: early perimenopausal; late perimenopausal; and postmenopausal. Laboratory tests included measurement of serum lipid profiles and vitamin D levels, the BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat were measured. Statistical analysis included F-test analysis of variance and the least significance difference (LSD) test was used for multiple comparisons.


          For the 300 women who were in non-manual employment, and in the early and late perimenopausal and postmenopausal periods, serum vitamin D levels were reduced (mean 16.8±8.7 ng/mL); 29% of women had abdominal obesity; 41% had excessive body fat accumulation; and 56% had an increased body mass index (BMI) (>25 kg/m 2) with raised total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, LDL/high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and total cholesterol/HDL ratios (p<0.05).


          The findings of this study showed that in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in non-manual employment, serum vitamin D levels were associated with serum lipid profile and degrees of obesity.

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          Most cited references22

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          The metabolic syndrome: prevalence and associated risk factor findings in the US population from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.

          The metabolic syndrome is an important cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors with common insulin resistance. The extent to which the metabolic syndrome is associated with demographic and potentially modifiable lifestyle factors in the US population is unknown. Metabolic syndrome-associated factors and prevalence, as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, were evaluated in a representative US sample of 3305 black, 3477 Mexican American, and 5581 white men and nonpregnant or lactating women aged 20 years and older who participated in the cross-sectional Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The metabolic syndrome was present in 22.8% and 22.6% of US men and women, respectively (P =.86). The age-specific prevalence was highest in Mexican Americans and lowest in blacks of both sexes. Ethnic differences persisted even after adjusting for age, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. The metabolic syndrome was present in 4.6%, 22.4%, and 59.6% of normal-weight, overweight, and obese men, respectively, and a similar distribution was observed in women. Older age, postmenopausal status, Mexican American ethnicity, higher body mass index, current smoking, low household income, high carbohydrate intake, no alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity were associated with increased odds of the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is present in more than 20% of the US adult population; varies substantially by ethnicity even after adjusting for body mass index, age, socioeconomic status, and other predictor variables; and is associated with several potentially modifiable lifestyle factors. Identification and clinical management of this high-risk group is an important aspect of coronary heart disease prevention.
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            Concentrations of serum vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults.

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              Body fat content and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy women.

              Obesity is associated with alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system. Lower levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in morbidly obese individuals may be secondary to an alteration in tissue distribution resulting from an increase in adipose mass. Therefore, morbidly obese individuals are expected to need higher doses of vitamin D supplementation than the general population. However, it is still unknown whether adiposity (or percentage body fat) should be taken into consideration while assessing vitamin D requirements in the general population. To study the relationship between 25-OHD levels and percentage body fat content in healthy women, we studied 410 healthy women between 20 and 80 yr of age with body mass index ranging from 17 to 30 kg/m2. We analyzed the correlation between serum 25-OHD level and percentage body fat measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. We also analyzed the influence of season, dietary vitamin D intake, age, and race on this relationship. The levels of serum 25-OHD inversely correlated with percentage body fat. The correlation was -0.13 (P = 0.013) after adjusting for race, age, season, and dietary vitamin D intake. In a multiple stepwise regression, race and season were found to have a major influence on serum 25-OHD (cumulative R2 = 0.34), and percentage body fat, although modest (additional R2 = 0.02), also had an independent statistically significant influence on serum 25-OHD levels. We conclude, percentage body fat content is inversely related to the serum 25-OHD levels in healthy women.

                Author and article information

                Med Sci Monit
                Med. Sci. Monit
                Medical Science Monitor
                Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
                International Scientific Literature, Inc.
                21 October 2017
                : 23
                : 5018-5026
                [1 ]School of Public Health, Center for Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Women’s Health, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland
                [3 ]Department of Prevention of Environmental Hazards and Allergology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
                [4 ]Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Pediatric Dermatology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
                [5 ]The College of Business and Entrepreneurship in Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, Poland
                [6 ]Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Dorota Raczkiewicz, e-mail: dorota.bartosinska@ 123456gmail.com

                Study Design


                Data Collection


                Statistical Analysis


                Data Interpretation


                Manuscript Preparation


                Literature Search


                Funds Collection

                © Med Sci Monit, 2017

                This work is licensed under Creative Common Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International ( CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

                : 30 August 2017
                : 11 September 2017
                Clinical Research

                lipids,menopause,obesity,vitamin d
                lipids, menopause, obesity, vitamin d


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