0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Maternal Undernutrition Induces Neuroendocrine Immune Dysfunction in Male Pups at Weaning

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The present study was designed to assess the effect of maternal undernutrition, during gestation and lactation, on the neuroendocrine [hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)]-immune axis response to endotoxin (LPS) administration. For this purpose, 21-day-old male rats from both well-nourished (WN) and undernourished (UN) mothers were examined 2 h after injection (i.p.) of vehicle alone (VEH) or containing LPS (130 µg/kg BW). Circulating levels of glucose (GLU), ACTH, corticosterone (B), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and leptin were explored. The results indicate that: (a) mother body weight was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced, as a consequence of UN, at the second and third weeks of pregnancy; (b) no differences in basal glycemia were found in the two groups of pups, and LPS treatment did not induce hypoglycemia, in either group; (c) basal plasma ACTH, B and TNFα levels were similar in the two groups, and LPS-induced ACTH, B and TNFα secretions, although severalfold higher than respective VEH values (p < 0.05) in pups from WN mothers, were fully (ACTH and B) and partially (TNFα) abolished in products from UN mothers; (d) both mean body weights and basal plasma leptin levels were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in pups from UN than from WN mothers, and LPS administration did not modify plasma leptin values in products from both groups. In addition, results of dispersed total adrenal cells incubated in vitro indicate that: (a) both basal and ACTH (22 p M)-induced B secretion were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in cells from UN than WN pups, and (b) leptin (100 n M) was able to inhibit partially ACTH-stimulated B output by adrenal gland (AG) cells from WN pups; however, it failed to inhibit ACTH-stimulated glucocorticoid release by AG cells from UN pups. The present results indicate that undernutrition in mothers, during the very critical periods of gestation and lactation, induces in their male pups at weaning: (a) reduced circulating leptin levels and body weight values; (b) metabolic adaptation to normal carbohydrate metabolism; (c) hyporesponsiveness of the HPA and immune (TNFα) axes during endotoxemia, and (d) leptin resistance at the adrenocortical level. This study strongly supports that undernutrition of mothers results in neuroendocrine immune dysfunction of their pups; however, adrenal resistance to the inhibitory effect of leptin on glucocorticoid output is developed, probably as an adaptive mechanism to counteract unfavorable metabolic conditions.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 3

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Anti-cachectin/TNF monoclonal antibodies prevent septic shock during lethal bacteraemia.

          Bacterial infection of the mammalian bloodstream can lead to overwhelming sepsis, a potentially fatal syndrome of irreversible cardiovascular collapse (shock) and critical organ failure. Cachectin, also known as tumour necrosis factor, is a macrophage-derived peptide hormone released in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and it has been implicated as a principal mediator of endotoxic shock, although its function in bacterial sepsis is not known. Anaesthetized baboons were passively immunized against endogenous cachectin and subsequently infused with an LD100 dose of live Escherichia coli. Control animals (not immunized against cachectin) developed hypotension followed by lethal renal and pulmonary failure. Neutralizing monoclonal anti-cachectin antibody fragments (F(ab')2) administered to baboons only one hour before bacterial challenge protected against shock, but did not prevent critical organ failure. Complete protection against shock, vital organ dysfunction, persistent stress hormone release and death was conferred by administration of antibodies 2 h before bacterial infusion. These results indicate that cachectin is a mediator of fatal bacteraemic shock, and suggest that antibodies against cachectin offer a potential therapy of life-threatening infection.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Evidence for a direct central anorectic effect of tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha in the rat.

            This study was designed to investigate the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) on the control of food intake in rat. The specific aims were: a) to evaluate the effects of central (ICV) or peripheral (IP) microdoses of TNF on food intake; b) to show that the TNF-induced anorexia results from a direct action of the mediator on the central nervous system; c) to demonstrate that the anorexic activity of TNF is not due to nonspecific malaise. In the first experiment, ICV administration (0.5-4.0 micrograms) of recombinant-murine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rmTNF) significantly reduced food intake in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal effect (-66%) was observed 5 h after a 4.0 micrograms dose. In contrast, rm TNF did not affect feeding behavior when injected IP, indicating that the anorexic activity was centrally mediated. The estimated DE50 was 2.0 micrograms/rat by the ICV route. In the second experiment, the place conditioning paradigm was used to show that TNF administered ICV at 2.0 micrograms/rat did not induce aversive or deleterious effects as compared to naltrexone given IP at the equi-anorectic dose 5.0 mg/kg. It was concluded that TNF reduces food intake in rats by a direct action on the central nervous system.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found

              Metabolic, Neuroendocrine and Immune Functions in Basal Conditions and during the Acute-Phase Response to Endotoxic Shock in Undernourished Rats

              Chronic malnutrition is one of the most important causes of several metabolic, immune and neuroendocrine dysfunctions. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of chronic food restriction on basal neuroendocrine, immune and adipocyte functions and during the acute-phase response to endotoxic shock in female rats. The effect of refeeding of undernourished rats on the above-mentioned functions was also investigated. For these purposes, plasma total protein, glucose, triglycerides, ACTH, corticosterone, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and leptin (LEP) levels were determined in basal condition and 2 h after endotoxin (LPS; 180 µg/kg body weight, i.p.) administration in 3 different groups: (1) well-nourished (WN) controls; (2) undernourished (UN) rats as a consequence of chronic food restriction, and (3) UN rats re-fed to restoration of their body weights in the WN rat range. The results indicate that UN rats, in comparison with WN controls, developed an arrest in body weight gain as well as in basal hypoglycemia, hypotriglyceridemia, hypoleptinemia, hypercorticosteronemia and enhanced adrenal glucocorticoid content; however, no changes in basal total protein, ACTH and TNF plasma levels and in anterior pituitary ACTH concentrations were found. When endotoxic shock was induced, the LPS-induced hypoglycemia developed in WN rats was abolished in UN animals, and both ACTH and TNF plasma concentrations after endotoxin, albeit significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the respective basal values, were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in UN than in WN control rats. Despite the high basal plasma corticosterone concentration in UN vs. WN rats, the LPS-induced glucocorticoid release was similar in WN and UN rats. Additionally, LPS treatment did not modify basal plasma LEP levels, regardless of the group. Interestingly, UN rats fed ad libitum for 15 days restored their body weight to WN rat range values, and the various metabolic dysfunctions seen in UN rats in both basal and post-LPS conditions were fully normalized. Our results clearly indicate that chronic undernutrition not only affects, as earlier described, reproductive function but also metabolic, neuroendocrine, immune and adipocyte functions, and that the effects induced by undernutrition can be fully reversed after recovery of normal body weight. The present study strongly supports the involvement of the metabolic status in the effectiveness of the defense mechanisms developed in patients in inflammatory stress conditions.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2001
                June 2001
                29 June 2001
                : 9
                : 1
                : 41-48
                Affiliations
                aNeuroendocrine Unit, Multidisciplinary Institute on Cell Biology (CIC-CONICET), and bSchool of Exact Sciences (UNLP), La Plata, Argentina; cDivision of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
                Article
                49006 Neuroimmunomodulation 2001;9:41–48
                10.1159/000049006
                11435751
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 35, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Comments

                Comment on this article