08 July 1998
We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study to confirm our earlier observation that prolonged subcutaneous implantation of peritoneal catheter reduced peritonitis rate when compared to retrospective data from patients with catheters placed by conventional access technique. A total of 60 patients were randomized into two groups: 30 patients had catheters left implanted subcutaneously for 6 weeks (I) and the other 30 patients had catheters inserted by conventional technique and had 6 weeks of break-in period (C). Subgroups of 15 patients each with new and conventional techniques used Y-connector (IY, CY) and remaining patients used standard spikes (IS, CS).Mean age was 47.7 years (range 16–71); 61.0% were male and 44.1% diabetics. Peritonitis, exit site infection, simultaneous peritonitis and exit site infection, and complication related to Staphylococcus or Pseudomonas infections were observed for up to 2 years in each patient after initiation of bag exchange or until termination of CAPD by transfer to hemodialysis or by death.Total duration of observation was 493.2 patient-months for new access technique and 409.6 patient-months for conventional technique. Patients in IY group had the lowest incidence of peritonitis (1/14.9 patient-months) and exit site infection (1/16.8 patient-months) among four subgroups. Peritonitis rate in IY was significantly lower compared to CY or CS. The total peritonitis-free period in those patients who did not experience peritonitis during the observation period was also significantly longer in IY (120 patient-months) than in CY (26 patient-months), IS (10.6 patient-months), or CS (10.4 patient-months). Simultaneous peritonitis and exit site infection was observed in none of IY group but 3 episodes in CY, 4 episodes in IS, and 3 episodes in CS. The rates of complications related to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas infections were also significantly lower in IY than in CY, IS, or CS. Technique survival did not differ between the two groups.The present results confirm our previous observation that the new access technique reduces the incidence of peritonitis probably by reducing infection via periluminal route. The Y-connector system further reduces peritonitis rate by reducing infection via intraluminal route.