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      Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase during the Development of RCS Rat Retinas

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          Abstract

          Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to be both neurodestructive and neuroprotective in the central nervous system and could possibly play an important role in neurodegenerative disorders. On the assumption that NO synthesis may influence degenerative processes in the retina, we have examined the development and distribution of nitric-oxide-synthase(NOS)-immunoreactive cells in developing Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat retinas, which is an animal model for retinal degeneration. An antibody against constitutive neuronal NOS was used for immunocytochemistry on RCS rat retinas from postnatal (PN) days 3, 7, 10, 14, 35, 70 and 281 and compared with that in the normal rats of PN days 3, 7, 10, 14, 54 and adults. Immunoreactive cells were not seen in PN 3 retinas but were distinctly seen in the PN 7 retina along with a plexus in the inner plexiform layer. In both groups (normal and RCS rats) a distinct sublayering of the plexus in the inner plexiform layer could be seen at PN 10, which became more distinct at PN 14. The immunoreactive cells were detected also in the oldest retina examined, which was PN 281 in the case of RCS rats. In both groups, certain amacrine cells, certain bipolar cells and certain horizontal cells were found to be immunoreactive. In conclusion, the developmental timetable of the NOS immunoreactivity was identical in the normal and the RCS rat retinas. The NOS-immunoreactive cells persisted in the RCS retinas even when the retina had degenerated extensively. Abnormalities with the inducible isoforms of NOS cannot be ruled out from this study. We conclude that the chronological and qualitative development of the constitutive neuronal NOS immunoreactivity is normal in RCS rat retinas.

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          Most cited references8

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          Isoforms of nitric oxide synthase. Characterization and purification from different cell types.

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            The localization of nitric oxide synthase in the rat eye and related cranial ganglia.

            Nitric oxide synthase is the biosynthetic enzyme for the free radical neurotransmitter nitric oxide. Using an affinity-purified antiserum, nitric oxide synthase was found to be localized to peripheral ocular nerve fibers, related cranial ganglia, and the retina of the rat. In the eye, nitric oxide synthase-like immunoreactive peripheral nerve fibers were visualized mainly in the choroid and about limbal blood vessels. The anterior uvea was quite sparsely innervated, and the cornea was negative. Many principal neurons in the pterygopalatine ganglion were immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase while very few cells stained in the superior cervical and trigeminal ganglia. Virtually all nitric oxide synthase-like immunoreactive pterygopalatine cells were also immunostained for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; nitric oxide synthase also partially co-localized with neuropeptide Y in some of the neurons of this ganglion. Pterygopalatine ganglionectomy significantly reduced the number of peripheral nitric oxide synthase-like immunoreactive nerve fibers in the eye. A variety of immunoreactive retinal cells were seen. Most cells in the inner nuclear layer or ganglion cell layer corresponded morphologically to amacrine cells and displaced amacrine cells. Interplexiform cells and occasional faintly stained cells in the outer portion of the inner nuclear layer also were visualized. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase histochemistry generally stained cells of similar distribution but did reveal somewhat more extensive localizations in peripheral ocular tissues, the ciliary ganglion, and the retina, compared with nitric oxide synthase immunohistochemistry. Nitric oxide synthase thus localizes to peripheral ocular nerve fibers, chiefly parasympathetic in nature and derived from the pterygopalatine ganglion, and to several cell types in the retina. Nitric oxide probably acts as a choroidal vasodilator of parasympathetic origin in the eye; the neuropeptide co-localizations in the pterygopalatine ganglion suggest complex neuromodulatory interactions. The retinal localizations imply potential neurotransmitter functions for nitric oxide in this tissue.
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              Cultured striatal neurons containing NADPH-diaphorase or acetylcholinesterase are selectively resistant to injury by NMDA receptor agonists.

              Cultured striatal neurons containing either NADPH-diaphorase or acetylcholinesterase were more resistant to injury by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or quinolinate, than the general striatal neuronal population, although this resistance was not absolute and could be overcome by intense toxic exposure. Neurons containing NADPH-diaphorase, but not neurons containing acetylcholinesterase, also exhibited heightened vulnerability to injury by kainate. Given recent evidence that diaphorase- and cholinesterase-containing striatal neurons are selectively spared in Huntington's disease, our results strengthen the possibility that NMDA receptor-mediated neurotoxicity may participate in the pathogenesis of that disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2001
                June 2001
                20 April 2001
                : 215
                : 3
                : 222-228
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Lund, and bUniversity College of Health Sciences, Jönköping, Sweden
                Article
                50863 Ophthalmologica 2001;215:222–228
                10.1159/000050863
                11340396
                04913b77-e1f9-4610-9221-8d8c8e288c6e
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 40, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper · Travail original · Originalarbeit

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                RCS rats,Retina,Nitric oxide synthase,Immunocytochemistry

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