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      Iron- and Zinc-Fortified Lentil ( Lens culinaris Medik.) Demonstrate Enhanced and Stable Iron Bioavailability After Storage

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          Abstract

          Lentil ( Lens culinaris Medik.) is a quick-cooking, rapidly expanding protein-rich crop with high iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), but low bioavailability due to the presence of phytate, similar to other grains. Lentils dual fortified with Fe and Zn can significantly improve the bioavailable Fe and Zn content. Three milled lentil product types (LPTs) were fortified with Fe using NaFeEDTA [ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid iron (III) sodium salt] (Fe fortified) or Zn from ZnSO 4·H 2O (Zn fortified), or both (dual fortified). Fe, Zn, phytic acid (PA) concentration, and relative Fe bioavailability (RFeB%) were assessed for samples from two fortified batches (initial and for 1 year stored). Fe, Zn, and RFeB% increased significantly in two batches of samples from the three LPTs, and decreased by 5–15% after 1 year of storage. PA concentration decreased from 8 to 15% after fortification of all samples from two batches of the three LPTs but showed different patterns of influence after storage. Dual-fortified lentil fortified with 24 mg Fe and 12 mg Zn 100 g −1 lentil had the highest amount of Fe and Zn, and the lowest PA concentration, and RFeB% was increased from 91.3 to 519.5%. Significant ( p ≤ 0.01) Pearson correlations were observed between Fe concentration vs. PA:Fe molar ratio (MR), Fe concentration vs. RFeB%, RFeB% vs. PA:Fe MR, and Zn concentration vs. PA:Zn MR in all samples from two batches of the three LPTs. In conclusion, dual-fortified lentil can contribute significant bioavailable Fe and Zn to populations at risk of Fe and Zn deficiency.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Estimating the Global Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency: Results Based on Zinc Availability in National Food Supplies and the Prevalence of Stunting

          Background Adequate zinc nutrition is essential for adequate growth, immunocompetence and neurobehavioral development, but limited information on population zinc status hinders the expansion of interventions to control zinc deficiency. The present analyses were conducted to: (1) estimate the country-specific prevalence of inadequate zinc intake; and (2) investigate relationships between country-specific estimated prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and dietary patterns and stunting prevalence. Methodology and Principal Findings National food balance sheet data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake were calculated based on the estimated absorbable zinc content of the national food supply, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group estimated physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, and demographic data obtained from United Nations estimates. Stunting data were obtained from a recent systematic analysis based on World Health Organization growth standards. An estimated 17.3% of the world’s population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was negatively correlated with the total energy and zinc contents of the national food supply and the percent of zinc obtained from animal source foods, and positively correlated with the phytate: zinc molar ratio of the food supply. The estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was correlated with the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age) in children under five years of age (r = 0.48, P<0.001). Conclusions and Significance These results, which indicate that inadequate dietary zinc intake may be fairly common, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, allow inter-country comparisons regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem. Data from these analyses should be used to determine the need for direct biochemical and dietary assessments of population zinc status, as part of nationally representative nutritional surveys targeting countries estimated to be at high risk.
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            A review of phytate, iron, zinc, and calcium concentrations in plant-based complementary foods used in low-income countries and implications for bioavailability.

            Plant-based complementary foods often contain high levels of phytate, a potent inhibitor of iron, zinc, and calcium absorption. This review summarizes the concentrations of phytate (as hexa- and penta-inositol phosphate), iron, zinc, and calcium and the corresponding phytate:mineral molar ratios in 26 indigenous and 27 commercially processed plant-based complementary foods sold in low-income countries. Phytate concentrations were highest in complementary foods based on unrefined cereals and legumes (approximately 600 mg/100 g dry weight), followed by refined cereals (approximately 100 mg/100 g dry weight) and then starchy roots and tubers (< 20 mg/100 g dry weight); mineral concentrations followed the same trend. Sixty-two percent (16/26) of the indigenous and 37% (10/27) of the processed complementary foods had at least two phytate:mineral molar ratios (used to estimate relative mineral bioavailability) that exceeded suggested desirable levels for mineral absorption (i.e., phytate:iron < 1, phytate:zinc < 18, phytate:calcium < 0.17). Desirable molar ratios for phytate:iron, phytate:zinc, and phytate:calcium were achieved for 25%, 70%, and 57%, respectively, of the complementary foods presented, often through enrichment with animal-source foods and/or fortification with minerals. Dephytinization, either in the household or commercially, can potentially enhance mineral absorption in high-phytate complementary foods, although probably not enough to overcome the shortfalls in iron, zinc, and calcium content of plant-based complementary foods used in low-income countries. Instead, to ensure the World Health Organization estimated needs for these minerals from plant-based complementary foods for breastfed infants are met, dephytinization must be combined with enrichment with animal-source foods and/or fortification with appropriate levels and forms of mineral fortificants.
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              Micronutrient fortification of food and its impact on woman and child health: a systematic review

              Background Vitamins and minerals are essential for growth and metabolism. The World Health Organization estimates that more than 2 billion people are deficient in key vitamins and minerals. Groups most vulnerable to these micronutrient deficiencies are pregnant and lactating women and young children, given their increased demands. Food fortification is one of the strategies that has been used safely and effectively to prevent vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Methods A comprehensive search was done to identify all available evidence for the impact of fortification interventions. Studies were included if food was fortified with a single, dual or multiple micronutrients and impact of fortification was analyzed on the health outcomes and relevant biochemical indicators of women and children. We performed a meta-analysis of outcomes using Review Manager Software version 5.1. Results Our systematic review identified 201 studies that we reviewed for outcomes of relevance. Fortification for children showed significant impacts on increasing serum micronutrient concentrations. Hematologic markers also improved, including hemoglobin concentrations, which showed a significant rise when food was fortified with vitamin A, iron and multiple micronutrients. Fortification with zinc had no significant adverse impact on hemoglobin levels. Multiple micronutrient fortification showed non-significant impacts on height for age, weight for age and weight for height Z-scores, although they showed positive trends. The results for fortification in women showed that calcium and vitamin D fortification had significant impacts in the post-menopausal age group. Iron fortification led to a significant increase in serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels in women of reproductive age and pregnant women. Folate fortification significantly reduced the incidence of congenital abnormalities like neural tube defects without increasing the incidence of twinning. The number of studies pooled for zinc and multiple micronutrients for women were few, though the evidence suggested benefit. There was a dearth of evidence for the impact of fortification strategies on morbidity and mortality outcomes in women and children. Conclusion Fortification is potentially an effective strategy but evidence from the developing world is scarce. Programs need to assess the direct impact of fortification on morbidity and mortality.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Nutr
                Front Nutr
                Front. Nutr.
                Frontiers in Nutrition
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-861X
                08 January 2021
                2020
                : 7
                Affiliations
                1Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan , Saskatoon, SK, Canada
                2Robert W. Holley Center for Agriculture and Health, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture , Ithaca, NY, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Zhaojun Wei, Hefei University of Technology, China

                Reviewed by: Jianhua Xie, Nanchang University, China; Junjie Wang, North Minzu University, China; Kefeng Zhai, Suzhou University, China

                *Correspondence: Rajib Podder rap039@ 123456mail.usask.ca

                This article was submitted to Nutrition and Food Science Technology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Nutrition

                Article
                10.3389/fnut.2020.614812
                7819975
                Copyright © 2021 Podder, Glahn and Vandenberg.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 66, Pages: 13, Words: 11229
                Categories
                Nutrition
                Original Research

                bioavailability, dual-fortiifcation, stability, zinc, iron, lentil

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