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      Open Campus Policies: How Built, Food, Social, and Organizational Environments Matter for Oregon’s Public High School Students’ Health

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          Abstract

          Open campus policies that grant access to the off-campus food environment may influence U.S. high school students’ exposure to unhealthy foods, yet predictors of these policies are unknown. Policy holding and built (walkability), food (access to grocery stores), social (school-to-neighborhood demographic similarity), and organizational (policy holding of neighboring schools) environment data were collected for 200 Oregon public high schools. These existing data were derived from the Oregon School Board Association, WalkScore.com, the 2010 Decennial Census, the 2010–2014 American Community Survey, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, TDLinex, Nielson directories, the U.S. Department of Education, the National Center for Education Statistics, and the Common Core of Data. Most (67%) of Oregon public high schools have open campus policies. Logistic regression analyses modeled open campus policy holding as a function of built, food, social, and organizational environment influences. With health and policy implications, the results indicate that the schools’ walkability, food access, and extent of neighboring open campus policy-schools are significantly associated with open campus policy holding in Oregon.

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            Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents: a review of the literature. Part I: quantitative studies

            Background In order to more effectively promote fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents, insight into determinants of intake is necessary. We conducted a review of the literature for potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents. Methods Papers were identified from Medline and PsycINFO by using all combinations of the search terms: "fruit(s) or vegetable(s)" and "children or adolescents". Quantitative research examining determinants of fruit and/or vegetable intake among children and adolescents aged 6–18 years were included. The selection and review process was conducted according to a four-step protocol resulting in information on country, population, design, methodology, theoretical basis, instrument used for measuring intake, statistical analysis, included independent variables, and effect sizes. Results Ninety-eight papers were included. A large number of potential determinants have been studied among children and adolescents. However, for many presumed determinants convincing evidence is lacking, mostly because of paucity of studies. The determinants best supported by evidence are: age, gender, socio-economic position, preferences, parental intake, and home availability/accessibility. Girls and younger children tend to have a higher or more frequent intake than boys and older children. Socio-economic position, preferences, parental intake, and home availability/accessibility are all consistently positively associated with intake. Conclusion The determinants most consistently supported by evidence are gender, age, socio-economic position, preferences, parental intake and home availability/accessibility. There is a need for internationally comparative, longitudinal, theory-based and multi-level studies taking both personal and environmental factors into account. This paper is published as part of the special Pro Children series in the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. Please see [] for the relevant editorial.
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              A systematic review of environmental correlates of obesity-related dietary behaviors in youth.

              There is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the development of interventions. A systematic review of observational studies on environmental correlates of energy, fat, fruit/vegetable, snack/fast food and soft drink intakes in children (4-12 years) and adolescents (13-18 years) was conducted. The results were summarized using the analysis grid for environments linked to obesity. The 58 papers reviewed mostly focused on sociocultural and economical-environmental factors at the household level. The most consistent associations were found between parental intake and children's fat, fruit/vegetable intakes, parent and sibling intake with adolescent's energy and fat intakes and parental education with adolescent's fruit/vegetable intake. A less consistent but positive association was found for availability and accessibility on children's fruit/vegetable intake. Environmental factors are predominantly studied at the household level and focus on sociocultural and economic aspects. Most consistent associations were found for parental influences (parental intake and education). More studies examining environmental factors using longitudinal study designs and validated measures are needed for solid evidence to inform interventions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                10 January 2020
                January 2020
                : 17
                : 2
                : 469
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Counseling Psychology and Human Services, College of Education, University of Oregon, 5461 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
                [2 ]Department of Sociology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Oregon, 1291 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA; raoull@ 123456uoregon.edu
                [3 ]Morgridge College of Education, University of Denver, 1999 E. Evans Avenue, Denver, CO 80208, USA; Brigette.Amidon@ 123456du.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: ebudd@ 123456uoregon.edu ; Tel.: +1-541-346-2173
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4854-3795
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3647-1504
                Article
                ijerph-17-00469
                10.3390/ijerph17020469
                7013906
                31936808
                06a261ba-9365-4ced-8abd-1a02ce9f0fd4
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 27 November 2019
                : 04 January 2020
                Categories
                Article

                Public health
                schools,youth,policy,built environment,food environment,social environment,organizational environment

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