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      Anthracycline-Induced Cardiotoxicity: The Role of Endothelial Dysfunction


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          Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality accounting up to 40% of all deaths, but, currently, cancer is prominent cause of death globally. Anthracyclines are the cornerstone of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. However, its clinical use is limited by their cardiotoxic effects that can trigger heart failure development. Vascular toxicity of chemotherapy may be linked with endothelial dysfunction because anthracycline damage of endothelial cells can lead to the development and progression of cardiomyopathy by decreasing the release and activity of endothelial factors and, ultimately, endothelial cell death. These processes suppress anti-inflammatory and vascular reparative functions and initiate the development of future cardiovascular events. Recent studies have shown that chemotherapy may induce toxicity in the vascular endothelium and is accompanied by systemic endothelial dysfunction in patients with diagnosed cardiovascular diseases. Because the initial endothelial cell insult is likely asymptomatic, there is often a long delay between the termination of doxorubicin therapy and the onset of vascular disorders. In this case, genetic susceptibility factor will help to identify susceptible patients in the future. The objectives of this study were to evaluate prognostic role of molecular (endothelin-1) and genetic factors (gene polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS3, rs1799983), endothelin-1 receptor type A (EDNRA, C+70G, rs5335) and NADPH oxidase (C242T, rs4673) in development of endothelial dysfunction and anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in women without cardiovascular diseases.

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          Most cited references29

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          Identification of the molecular basis of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

          Doxorubicin is believed to cause dose-dependent cardiotoxicity through redox cycling and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we show that cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Top2b (encoding topoisomerase-IIβ) protects cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced DNA double-strand breaks and transcriptome changes that are responsible for defective mitochondrial biogenesis and ROS formation. Furthermore, cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Top2b protects mice from the development of doxorubicin-induced progressive heart failure, suggesting that doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity is mediated by topoisomerase-IIβ in cardiomyocytes.
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            Anthracyclines: molecular advances and pharmacologic developments in antitumor activity and cardiotoxicity.

            The clinical use of anthracyclines like doxorubicin and daunorubicin can be viewed as a sort of double-edged sword. On the one hand, anthracyclines play an undisputed key role in the treatment of many neoplastic diseases; on the other hand, chronic administration of anthracyclines induces cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure usually refractory to common medications. Second-generation analogs like epirubicin or idarubicin exhibit improvements in their therapeutic index, but the risk of inducing cardiomyopathy is not abated. It is because of their janus behavior (activity in tumors vis-à-vis toxicity in cardiomyocytes) that anthracyclines continue to attract the interest of preclinical and clinical investigations despite their longer-than-40-year record of longevity. Here we review recent progresses that may serve as a framework for reappraising the activity and toxicity of anthracyclines on basic and clinical pharmacology grounds. We review 1) new aspects of anthracycline-induced DNA damage in cancer cells; 2) the role of iron and free radicals as causative factors of apoptosis or other forms of cardiac damage; 3) molecular mechanisms of cardiotoxic synergism between anthracyclines and other anticancer agents; 4) the pharmacologic rationale and clinical recommendations for using cardioprotectants while not interfering with tumor response; 5) the development of tumor-targeted anthracycline formulations; and 6) the designing of third-generation analogs and their assessment in preclinical or clinical settings. An overview of these issues confirms that anthracyclines remain "evergreen" drugs with broad clinical indications but have still an improvable therapeutic index.
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              Doxorubicin pathways: pharmacodynamics and adverse effects.


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                May 2021
                17 February 2021
                : 146
                : 3
                : 315-323
                [_a] aDepartment of Myocardial Pathology, Tomsk National Research Medical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Cardiology Research Institute, Tomsk, Russian Federation
                [_b] bDepartment of Pathological Physiology and Clinical Pathophysiology, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
                Author notes
                *Kristina V. Kopeva, Tomsk NRMC, Cardiology Research Institute, 111а Kievskaya St., Tomsk 634012 (Russian Federation), kristin-kop@inbox.ru
                512771 Cardiology 2021;146:315–323
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 19 April 2020
                : 26 September 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, Pages: 9
                Cardiovascular Biomarkers: Research Article

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Endothelin-1,Gene polymorphisms,Biomarkers,Endothelial dysfunction,Heart failure,Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity


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