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      Regeneration of Autotransplanted Avascular Lymph Nodes in the Rat Is Improved by Platelet-Rich Plasma

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          Abstract

          The aim of this study was to verify that subcutaneous lymph node transplantation inducing lymphatic regeneration is possible in healthy adult rats, in analogy to results obtained in other species. This rat model was used to determine the effects of lymph node fragmentation as well as sheep erythrocytes and platelet-rich plasma injection on the regeneration of the transplanted lymph nodes. The results show for the first time that the rat is an adequate model to study the regeneration of transplanted lymph nodes. Lymph node fragmentation seems to affect transplant regeneration negatively. An immune challenge by injection of sheep erythrocytes in the drainage area of the transplanted lymph nodes does not improve fragment regeneration. However, injection of syngeneic platelet-rich plasma containing several growth factors resulted in an improvement in regeneration. Lymph node fragment regeneration, although still experimental, could be relevant for lymphedema prevention. Acquired lymphedema has a high prevalence in developed countries as a consequence of the removal and/or radiotherapy of tumor-draining lymph nodes in cancer patients. This disease causes lifelong disability due to chronic swelling and increased risk of infections. It currently lacks an effective treatment.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Platelet-rich plasma: quantification of growth factor levels and the effect on growth and differentiation of rat bone marrow cells.

          Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a new application of tissue engineering and a developing area for clinicians and researchers. It is a storage vehicle of growth factors (GFs) such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)- AA, -BB, -AB; transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and -2; platelet-derived epidermal growth factor (PDEGF); platelet-derived angiogenesis factor (PDAF); insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1); and platelet factor- 4 (PF-4), which are known to influence bone regeneration. However, animal and clinical studies reveal different results with the use of PRP and its effect on bone healing. This could be due to the differences between species, that is, differences between species in GF concentrations or variation in presence of GFs between the various PRPs. In this study, rat bone marrow cells were cultured in PRP-coated wells or in uncoated wells for 16 days in osteogenic medium, and analyzed on cell growth (DNA content) and cell differentiation (alkaline phosphatase [ALP] activity, calcium content, scanning electron microscopy, and QPCR). The concentrations of TGF-beta1, PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, and PDGF-BB in rat, goat, and human PRP were subsequently determined. The results showed that PRP stimulated initial cell growth and had no effect on ALP activity. The calcium measurements showed a significant increase in calcium at days 8, 12, and 16. The real-time PCR results showed that PRP upregulated osteocalcin at day 1 and collagen type I at day 8. Overall, the immunoassays revealed that human PRP contained higher concentrations of growth factors per platelet compared to rat and goat PRP. Goat PRP showed higher concentrations of growth factors per platelet as compared to rat PRP except for PDGF-BB, which had a higher concentration in rat PRP. TGF-beta1 was the most abundant growth factor in all 3 PRPs. On the basis of our results, we conclude that platelet-rich plasma contains osteo-inductive growth factors, which are probably species related. However, we cannot generalize the results because of large intraspecies variations. Further, we conclude that rat PRP gel stimulates initial growth and differentiation of rat bone marrow cells in vitro.
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            Molecular mechanisms of lymphatic vascular development.

            Lymphatic vasculature has recently emerged as a prominent area in biomedical research because of its essential role in the maintenance of normal fluid homeostasis and the involvement in pathogenesis of several human diseases, such as solid tumor metastasis, inflammation and lymphedema. Identification of lymphatic endothelial specific markers and regulators, such as VEGFR-3, VEGF-C/D, PROX1, podoplanin, LYVE-1, ephrinB2 and FOXC2, and the development of mouse models have laid a foundation for our understanding of the major steps controlling growth and remodeling of lymphatic vessels. In this review we summarize recent advances in the field and discuss how this knowledge as well as use of model organisms, such as zebrafish and Xenopus, should allow further in depth analysis of the lymphatic vascular system.
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              The effect of different platelet-rich plasma concentrations on proliferation and differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells in vitro.

               J. Han,  H Meng,  J. Tang (2007)
              The use of platelets and platelet products has become increasingly popular clinically as a means of accelerating endosseous wound healing. It is likely that growth factors released by activated platelets at the site of injury play a role in periodontal regeneration by regulating cellular activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) in vitro. Primary cultures of hPDLCs were obtained from healthy premolars. PRP was isolated by two-step centrifugation. Two main growth factors present in the thrombin-activated PRP (platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF-AB] and transforming growth factor-beta1 [TGF-beta1]) were evaluated using ELISA assay. Activated PRP or the combination of recombined human TGF-beta1 (rhTGF-beta1) and PDGF-AB (rhPDGF-AB) were added to hPDLCs in different concentrations to assess cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. PRP contained high levels of TGF-beta1 and PDGF-AB. Cell attachment, proliferation and ALP activity were enhanced by addition of PRP or rhTGF-beta1 and rhPDGF-AB combination to the cell cultures, while the stimulatory potency of PRP was much greater than the latter. These stimulatory effects presented in a dose-dependant manner, it seemed that PRP with 50~100 ng/ml TGF-beta1 was an ideal concentration. PRP can enhance hPDLC adhesion, proliferation and induce the differentiation of hPDLC into mineralized tissue formation cell; thereby contribute to the main processes of periodontal tissue regeneration. For economical and biological reasons, PRP has more clinical beneficial than analogous growth factors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2009
                August 2009
                21 January 2009
                : 46
                : 5
                : 389-396
                Affiliations
                aInstitute for Functional and Applied Anatomy, and bClinic for Diagnostic Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
                Article
                194269 J Vasc Res 2009;46:389–396
                10.1159/000194269
                19155630
                © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 23, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Methods in Vascular Biology

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