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      In‐depth discovery of protein lactylation in hepatocellular carcinoma

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      PROTEOMICS
      Wiley

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          Abstract

          As a prevalent cancer type, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for a number of tumor‐related deaths worldwide. Substantial efforts from various aspects, including RNA and proteins, have been devoted to understanding the mechanisms of HCC and proposing therapeutic schemes correspondingly. Within one of the important fields in cancer research – protein post‐translational modifications (PTMs), recent discoveries revealed much broader landscapes of lysine lactylation (Kla) distributed in whole human proteome. Upon realizing the relation between Kla and cancers, Hong et al. ( Proteomics 2023, 23, 2200432) comprehensively profiled lactylproteome in HCC tissues for the first time. All collected and processed samples were categorized into normal liver tissues, HCC without metastasis or HCC with lung metastasis tissues. As a result, 2045 Kla modification sites from 960 proteins were identified and 1438 sites from 772 proteins were quantifiably measured. Many differentially expressed Kla‐proteins emerged and meant to contribute HCC formation and metastatsis. Among them, specific Kla sites from ubiquitin specific peptidase 14 (USP14) and ATP‐binding cassette family 1 (ABCF1) were respectively verified as diagnostic indicators to characterize HCC and its metastasis. This work was of great significance, and made impacts in terms of further discovery of HCC rationale, as well as diagnosis of HCC status and targeted therapies.

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          Most cited references10

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          On the Origin of Cancer Cells

          O WARBURG (1956)
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            Metabolic regulation of gene expression by histone lactylation

            The Warburg effect, originally describing augmented lactogenesis in cancer, is associated with diverse cellular processes such as angiogenesis, hypoxia, macrophage polarization, and T-cell activation. This phenomenon is intimately linked with multiple diseases including neoplasia, sepsis, and autoimmune diseases 1,2 . Lactate, a compound generated during Warburg effect, is widely known as an energy source and metabolic byproduct. However, its non-metabolic functions in physiology and disease remain unknown. Here we report lactate-derived histone lysine lactylation as a new epigenetic modification and demonstrate that histone lactylation directly stimulates gene transcription from chromatin. In total, we identify 28 lactylation sites on core histones in human and mouse cells. Hypoxia and bacterial challenges induce production of lactate through glycolysis that in turn serves as precursor for stimulating histone lactylation. Using bacterially exposed M1 macrophages as a model system, we demonstrate that histone lactylation has different temporal dynamics from acetylation. In the late phase of M1 macrophage polarization, elevated histone lactylation induces homeostatic genes involved in wound healing including arginase 1. Collectively, our results suggest the presence of an endogenous “lactate clock” in bacterially challenged M1 macrophages that turns on gene expression to promote homeostasis. Histone lactylation thus represents a new avenue for understanding the functions of lactate and its role in diverse pathophysiological conditions, including infection and cancer.
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              Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics.

              Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non-tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacent stroma, and vascular endothelial cells, which induces metabolic reprogramming. Lactate also plays roles in promoting tumor inflammation and in functioning as a signaling molecule that stimulates tumor angiogenesis. Here we review the mechanisms of lactate production and transport and highlight emerging evidence indicating that targeting lactate metabolism is a promising approach for cancer therapeutics.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                PROTEOMICS
                Proteomics
                Wiley
                1615-9853
                1615-9861
                May 2023
                May 03 2023
                May 2023
                : 23
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Medicine Design – Pharmacokinetics Dynamics and Metabolism (PDM) Worldwide Research and Development Pfizer Inc Groton Connecticut USA
                Article
                10.1002/pmic.202300003
                37138381
                093f5b00-982c-43e6-b1c7-23cbc9b1e8ae
                © 2023

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

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