Between 1978 and 1993 a total of 25 cases of ruptured aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva underwent transaortic repair at the Railway Hospital and the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases at Madras, India. The aneurysms ruptured into the right ventricle in 20 patients, into the right atrium in 2, into the left ventricle in 1, and into the interventricular septum in 2. They originated from the right coronary sinus in 22 patients and from the noncoronary sinus in 3. Associated congenital anomalies included ventricular septal defect in 21, tetralogy of Fallot in 1, and pulmonary stenosis in 1. All 25 patients underwent transaortic repair of the ruptured sinus of Valsalva, and in patients with a ventricular septal defect the defect also was closed via this route. The patient with associated pulmonary stenosis had a pulmonary valvotomy. The patient with tetralogy of Fallot had infundibular resection, ventricular septal defect closure via a transatrial route, and a right ventricular outflow patch. No intraoperative deaths occurred, but one early death resulted from septicemia and multiorgan failure after rupture of the aneurysm into the interventricular septum with consequent development of extensive intramyocardial and epicardial abscesses. One late death occurred as a result of recurrent subacute bacterial endocarditis and septicemia. Transaortic repair of ruptured aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva can be accomplished with a low risk of mortality and has the advantage that an associated ventricular septal defect, which frequently accompanies this condition, can be conveniently closed via the same route.