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      Interactions between single nucleotide polymorphism of SERPINA1 gene and smoking in association with COPD: a case–control study

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          Abstract

          Background

          SERPINA1 gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), while smoking is a known risk factor for COPD. Little is known on the effect of SERPINA1 gene and its interaction with smoking in the Chinese population. In this study, the effect of SERPINA1 gene polymorphisms on COPD risk and its interaction with smoking status has been investigated.

          Method

          A total of 120 COPD patients and 481 healthy controls were recruited at The Armed Police Corps Hospital. Data on demographic variables, smoking status, history of occupational dust exposure, and allergies were collected. Genotyping for single nucleotide polymorphism’s (SNP) rs1243160, rs2854254, and rs8004738 was performed in all participants.

          Results

          SNP rs8004738 genotype was associated with a significantly higher risk for COPD (odds ratio (OR) =1.835, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.002–3.360), whereas SNPs rs1243160 and rs2854254 did not exhibit such an association. Smoking habit also significantly increased the risk for COPD (OR =2.306, 95% CI: 1.537–3.459). On stepwise logistic regression analysis, advanced age, smoking, and SNP rs8004738 variant were associated with increased risk for COPD, while female gender and higher educational status decreased the risk. On additive interaction analysis, a significant interactive effect of SNP rs8004738 and smoking was observed in this population (relative excess risk due to interaction =0.478; attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) =0.123; S=1.197).

          Conclusion

          SNP rs8004738 of SERPINA1 gene significantly interacted with smoking status and was associated with a higher risk for COPD in the Chinese population.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in alpha1-antitrypsin PI MZ heterozygotes: a meta-analysis.

          Severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency, usually related to homozygosity for the protease inhibitor (PI) Z allele, is a proven genetic risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The risk of COPD in PI MZ heterozygous individuals is controversial. A search of MEDLINE from January 1966 to May 2003 identified studies that examined the risk of COPD in PI MZ individuals and studies that measured forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) in heterozygotes. In 16 studies that reported COPD as a categorical outcome, the combined odds ratio (OR) for PI MZ versus PI MM (normal genotype) was 2.31 (95% CI 1.60 to 3.35). The summary OR was higher in case-control studies (OR 2.97; 95% CI 2.08 to 4.26) than in cross sectional studies (OR 1.50; 95% CI 0.97 to 2.31) and was attenuated in studies that adjusted for cigarette smoking (OR 1.61; 95% CI 0.92 to 2.81). In seven studies that reported FEV(1) as a continuous outcome there was no difference in mean FEV(1) between PI MM and PI MZ individuals. Case-control studies showed increased odds of COPD in PI MZ individuals, but this finding was not confirmed in cross sectional studies. Variability in study design and quality limits the interpretation. These results are consistent with a small increase in risk of COPD in all PI MZ individuals or a larger risk in a subset. Future studies that adjust for smoking and include other COPD related phenotypes are required to conclusively determine the risk of COPD in PI MZ heterozygotes.
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            Alpha-1 antitrypsin Null mutations and severity of emphysema.

            Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an autosomal-codominant disorder, caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene on chromosome 14. Individuals affected by the most common mutations, SZ and ZZ, have serum AAT concentrations of 25% and 15% of normal levels, and present a higher risk of emphysema. Mutations causing total absence of serum AAT (Null mutations) were suggested to be associated with very early onset emphysema but their clinical phenotype is poorly known. Absence of AAT in Null mutations results in more severe emphysema as compared to ZZ and SZ. We genotyped all known Dutch subjects (n=12) with absent serum AAT, and compared their lung function values (FEV1 and KCO) with those of individuals with ZZ and SZ genotype, matched for age and smoking history. All subjects with absent serum AAT presented homozygous Null mutations. In three subjects, a new mutation in exon 2 of the SERPINA1 gene was found. Subjects with Null mutations showed significantly lower lung function values than SZ and ZZ individuals (p=0.000 and 0.001 for FEV1 and KCO, respectively). In all groups, there was a positive correlation between serum AAT and lung function values (p=0.025 and 0.014 for FEV1 and KCO, respectively). Serum levels of AAT are correlated with the severity of pulmonary phenotype. Subjects with Null mutations should be considered a subgroup at particularly high risk of emphysema within AAT deficiency (AATD). Early detection of carriers of this genotype would be important for preventive and therapeutic interventions.
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              The genetics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

              Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that COPD aggregates in families, suggesting a genetic predisposition to airflow obstruction. Many candidate genes have been assessed, but the data are often conflicting. We review the genetic factors that predispose smokers to COPD and highlight the future role of genomic scans in identifying novel susceptibility genes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2017
                11 January 2017
                : 12
                : 259-265
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Health Medical Center
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: De Chang, Department of Respiratory Medicine, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, Yongding Road 69, Haidian District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China, Email changde5501@ 123456foxmail.com
                Cun-hua Yuan, Health Medical Center, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, Yongding Road 69, Haidian District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China, Email yuanchcapf@ 123456foxmial.com
                Article
                copd-12-259
                10.2147/COPD.S116313
                5238810
                © 2017 Deng et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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