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      Structural brain abnormalities in children and adolescents with comorbid autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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          Most cited references 45

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          The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory

           R.C. Oldfield (1971)
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            An automated labeling system for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on MRI scans into gyral based regions of interest.

            In this study, we have assessed the validity and reliability of an automated labeling system that we have developed for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on magnetic resonance images into gyral based regions of interest (ROIs). Using a dataset of 40 MRI scans we manually identified 34 cortical ROIs in each of the individual hemispheres. This information was then encoded in the form of an atlas that was utilized to automatically label ROIs. To examine the validity, as well as the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the automated system, we used both intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and a new method known as mean distance maps, to assess the degree of mismatch between the manual and the automated sets of ROIs. When compared with the manual ROIs, the automated ROIs were highly accurate, with an average ICC of 0.835 across all of the ROIs, and a mean distance error of less than 1 mm. Intra- and inter-rater comparisons yielded little to no difference between the sets of ROIs. These findings suggest that the automated method we have developed for subdividing the human cerebral cortex into standard gyral-based neuroanatomical regions is both anatomically valid and reliable. This method may be useful for both morphometric and functional studies of the cerebral cortex as well as for clinical investigations aimed at tracking the evolution of disease-induced changes over time, including clinical trials in which MRI-based measures are used to examine response to treatment.
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              FreeSurfer.

              FreeSurfer is a suite of tools for the analysis of neuroimaging data that provides an array of algorithms to quantify the functional, connectional and structural properties of the human brain. It has evolved from a package primarily aimed at generating surface representations of the cerebral cortex into one that automatically creates models of most macroscopically visible structures in the human brain given any reasonable T1-weighted input image. It is freely available, runs on a wide variety of hardware and software platforms, and is open source. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Translational Psychiatry
                Transl Psychiatry
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                2158-3188
                December 2019
                December 9 2019
                December 2019
                : 9
                : 1
                Article
                10.1038/s41398-019-0679-z
                © 2019

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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