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      Pharmacokinetic Compatibility of Ginsenosides and Schisandra Lignans in Shengmai-san: From the Perspective of P-Glycoprotein

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          Abstract

          Background

          Phytochemical-mediated alterations in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity may result in herb-drug interactions by altering drug pharmacokinetics. Shengmai-san, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine composed by Panax Ginseng, Ophiopogon Japonicus, and Schisandra Chinensis, is routinely being used for treating various coronary heart diseases. In our previous studies, S chisandra Lignans Extract (SLE) was proved as a strong P-gp inhibitor, and herein, the compatibility of Shengmai-san was studied by investigating the influence of SLE on the pharmacokinetics of the ginsenosides from the perspective of P-gp.

          Methodology

          Pharmacokinetic experiments were firstly performed based on in vitro uptake, efflux and transport experiments in Caco-2, LLC-PK1 wild-type and MDR1-overexpressing L-MDR1 cells. During the whole experiment, digoxin, a classical P-gp substrate, was used as a positive control drug to verify the cells used are the valid models. Meanwhile, the effects of SLE on the pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides were further investigated in rats after single-dose and multi-dose of SLE.

          Results and Conclusions

          The efflux ratios of ginsenoside Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and Rb1 were found more than 3.5 in L-MDR1 cells and can be decreased significantly by verapamil (a classical P-gp inhibitor). Contrarily, the efflux ratios of other ginsenosides (Rh1, F1, Re, and Rg1) were lower than 2.0 and not affected by verapamil. Then, the effects of SLE on the uptake and transport of ginsenosides were investigated, and SLE was found can significantly enhance the uptake and inhibit the efflux ratio of ginsenoside Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and Rb1 in Caco-2 and L-MDR1 cells. Besides, In vivo experiments showed that single-dose and multi-dose of SLE at 500 mg/kg could increase the area under the plasma concentration time curve of Rb2, Rc and Rd significantly without affecting terminal elimination half-time. In conclusion, SLE could enhance the exposure of ginsenosides Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and Rb1 significantly.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Dissection of mechanisms of Chinese medicinal formula Realgar-Indigo naturalis as an effective treatment for promyelocytic leukemia.

          To enhance therapeutic efficacy and reduce adverse effects, practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescribe a combination of plant species/minerals, called formulae, based on clinical experience. Nearly 100,000 formulae have been recorded, but the working mechanisms of most remain unknown. In trying to address the possible beneficial effects of formulae with current biomedical approaches, we use Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula (RIF), which has been proven to be very effective in treating human acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) as a model. The main components of RIF are realgar, Indigo naturalis, and Salvia miltiorrhiza, with tetraarsenic tetrasulfide (A), indirubin (I), and tanshinone IIA (T) as major active ingredients, respectively. Here, we report that the ATI combination yields synergy in the treatment of a murine APL model in vivo and in the induction of APL cell differentiation in vitro. ATI causes intensified ubiquitination/degradation of promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) oncoprotein, stronger reprogramming of myeloid differentiation regulators, and enhanced G(1)/G(0) arrest in APL cells through hitting multiple targets compared with the effects of mono- or biagents. Furthermore, ATI intensifies the expression of Aquaglyceroporin 9 and facilitates the transportation of A into APL cells, which in turn enhances A-mediated PML-RARalpha degradation and therapeutic efficacy. Our data also indicate A as the principal component of the formula, whereas T and I serve as adjuvant ingredients. We therefore suggest that dissecting the mode of action of clinically effective formulae at the molecular, cellular, and organism levels may be a good strategy in exploring the value of traditional medicine.
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            Absence of the mdr1a P-Glycoprotein in mice affects tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone, digoxin, and cyclosporin A.

            We have previously shown that absence of the mouse mdr1a (also called mdr3) P-glycoprotein in mdr1a (-/-) "knockout" mice has a profound effect on the tissue distribution and elimination of vinblastine and ivermectin, and hence on the toxicity of these compounds. We show here that the mouse mdr1a and the human MDR1 P-glycoprotein actively transport ivermectin, dexamethasone, digoxin, and cyclosporin A and, to a lesser extent, morphine across a polarized kidney epithelial cell layer in vitro. Injection of these radio-labeled drugs in mdr1a (-/-) and wild-type mice resulted in markedly (20- to 50-fold) higher levels of radioactivity in mdr1a (-/-) brain for digoxin and cyclosporin A, with more moderate effects for dexamethasone (2- to 3-fold) and morphine (1.7-fold). Digoxin and cyclosporin A were also more slowly eliminated from mdr1a (-/-) mice. Our findings show that P-glycoprotein can be a major determinant for the pharmacology of several medically important drugs other than anti-cancer agents, especially in the blood-brain barrier. These results may explain a range of pharmacological interactions observed between various drugs in patients.
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              Absorption and disposition of ginsenosides after oral administration of Panax notoginseng extract to rats.

              Panax notoginseng (Sanqi) is a cardiovascular herb containing ginsenosides that are believed to be responsible for the therapeutic effects of Sanqi. The aim of this study was to evaluate rat exposure to ginsenosides after oral administration of Sanqi extract and to identify the key factors affecting their absorption and disposition. Ginsenosides were administered to rats, either in the form of Sanqi extract or as pure chemicals. The ginsenosides Ra(3), Rb(1), Rd, Re, Rg(1), and notoginsenoside R(1) were the major saponins present in the herbal extract. Systemic exposure to ginsenosides Ra(3), Rb(1), and Rd after oral administration of the extract was significantly greater than that to the other compounds. Considerable colonic deglycosylation of the ginsenosides occurred, but the plasma levels of deglycosylated metabolites were low in rats. Poor membrane permeability and active biliary excretion are the two primary factors limiting systemic exposure to most ginsenosides and their deglycosylated metabolites. In contrast with other ginsenosides, biliary excretion of ginsenosides Ra(3) and Rb(1) was passive. Meanwhile, the active biliary excretion of ginsenoside Rd was significantly slower than that of other saponins. Slow biliary excretion, inefficient metabolism, and slow renal excretion resulted in long-circulating and thus relatively high exposure levels for these three ginsenosides. For these reasons, plasma ginsenosides Ra(3), Rb(1), and Rd were identified as pharmacokinetic markers for indicating rat systemic exposure to Sanqi extract. This is a systematic investigation of the absorption and disposition of ginsenosides from an herb, the information gained from which is important for linking Sanqi administration to its medicinal effects.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Key Lab of Drug Metabolism & Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China
                Taipei Medical University, Taiwan, Province Of China
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: YL LX GW. Performed the experiments: YL YZ JZ TR LZ RX QW HF KH. Analyzed the data: YL YZ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JZ. Wrote the paper: YL LX GW.

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2014
                12 June 2014
                : 9
                : 6
                24922060 4055595 PONE-D-14-02242 10.1371/journal.pone.0098717

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Counts
                Pages: 12
                Funding
                This study was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation (81102881, 81273589, 81374054), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Grants BK20131311). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Clinical Medicine
                Complementary and Alternative Medicine
                Pharmacology
                Drug Research and Development
                Drug Interactions

                Uncategorized

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