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      Aerobic uterine isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility in mares with post-partum metritis

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      Equine Veterinary Journal

      Wiley

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          A new strategy to fight antimicrobial resistance: the revival of old antibiotics

          The increasing prevalence of hospital and community-acquired infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens is limiting the options for effective antibiotic therapy. Moreover, this alarming spread of antimicrobial resistance has not been paralleled by the development of novel antimicrobials. Resistance to the scarce new antibiotics is also emerging. In this context, the rational use of older antibiotics could represent an alternative to the treatment of MDR bacterial pathogens. It would help to optimize the armamentarium of antibiotics in the way to preserve new antibiotics and avoid the prescription of molecules known to favor the spread of resistance (i.e., quinolones). Furthermore, in a global economical perspective, this could represent a useful public health orientation knowing that several of these cheapest “forgotten” antibiotics are not available in many countries. We will review here the successful treatment of MDR bacterial infections with the use of old antibiotics and discuss their place in current practice.
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            Retrospective study of bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibilities in equine uteri during fertility problems.

            Bacterial pathogens are a potential cause when a mare fails to conceive to a fertile stallion on a well-managed breeding farm on one or more cycles in the same season. Furthermore, emerging bacterial resistance to commonly used (topical) antibiotics has been demonstrated. In this study, a total of 586 uterine swabs from mares with fertility problems were evaluated and the bacterial isolates were identified and measured for resistance to 10 antibiotics most commonly used during bacterial equine infection. Forty-nine percent of the examined mares were positive at bacteriological investigations. Amongst 347 successful isolations, 31.7% were Streptococcus group C and 18.4% Escherichia (E.) coli, both considered frequently associated with fertility problems. Determination of the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Streptococcus group C (110 organisms) revealed that only the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was highly active with 82.7% of the isolates being inhibited. For E. coli, a major number of drugs displayed a high potency.
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              Antimicrobial use in food and companion animals.

              The vast literature on antimicrobial drug use in animals has expanded considerably recently as the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis in human medicine leads to questions about all usage of antimicrobial drugs, including long-term usage in intensively managed food animals for growth promotion and disease prevention. Attention is also increasingly focusing on antimicrobial use and on bacterial resistance in companion animals, which are in intimate contact with the human population. They may share resistant bacteria with their owners, amplify resistant bacteria acquired from their owners, and act as a reservoir for human infection. Considerable effort is being made to describe the basis of AMR in bacterial pathogens of animals. Documentation of many aspects of use of antimicrobials in animals is, however, generally less developed and only a few countries can describe quantities of drugs used in animals to kg levels annually. In recent years, many national veterinary associations have produced 'prudent use guidelines' to try to improve antimicrobial drug use and decrease resistance, but the impact of guidelines is unknown. Within the evolving global movement for 'antimicrobial stewardship', there is considerable scope to improve many aspects of antimicrobial use in animals, including infection control and reduction of use, with a view to reducing resistance and its spread, and to preserving antimicrobial drugs for the future.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Equine Veterinary Journal
                Equine Vet J
                Wiley
                04251644
                March 2018
                March 2018
                September 13 2017
                : 50
                : 2
                : 202-207
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Large Animal Medicine; College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia; Athens Georgia USA
                Article
                10.1111/evj.12738
                © 2017

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