HIV-derived envelope proteins appear to be intimately involved in the destruction of uninfected T cells that leads to AIDS in a process known as the ‘bystander effect’. Affinity hemodialysis has been proposed as an effective means of reducing these viral toxins. Using deterministic mathematical models based on the well-known Perelson formulations, the effectiveness of affinity hemodialysis in reducing the levels of viral gp120 was analyzed. Incorporating experimental data on the function of the affinity dialysis system and data from published analyses of HIV viral dynamics, two different models of HIV and AIDS were analyzed. Both models predict a rapid and sustained reduction in gp120 levels. In the model incorporating stem cell dynamics, affinity hemodialysis treatment under several different scenarios was associated with a significant increase in T-cell levels independent of any release from lymphatic tissues. The calculations support the contention that affinity hemodialysis is a potentially useful adjunctive therapy, which can be employed to treat HIV-infected patients in conjunction with drug therapy. For those patients resistant to anti-retroviral drugs or those unable to take the drugs due to the side effects of those medications, affinity hemodialysis treatment may become a viable option.