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      Catalytic Synthesis of the Biofuel 5-Ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF) from Biomass Sugars

      1 , 2 , 1 , 3 , 2 , 2 , 2
      Journal of Chemistry
      Hindawi Limited

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          Abstract

          A new generation of bioplatform molecule 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF) has excellent energy density and combustion performance, which makes it a potential fuel additive. This article reviews the factors that affect the production of EMF from different feedstocks, including platform compounds, monosaccharides, polysaccharides, and raw lignocellulosic biomass. Focus is placed on discussing the catalytic efficiency with pros and cons of different acid catalysts, including homogeneous catalysts (i.e., liquid acids and metal salts), heterogeneous catalysts (i.e., zeolites, heteropolyacid-based hybrids, and SO3H-based catalysts), ionic liquids, mixed acid catalysts, and deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Except for the commonly used ethanol solvent, this review also summarizes the influence of the cosolvent system (e.g., ethanol/dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol/tetrahydrofuran (THF), and ethanol/γ-valerolactone (GVL)) on the EMF yield.

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          Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) and their applications.

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            Deep eutectic solvents: syntheses, properties and applications.

            Within the framework of green chemistry, solvents occupy a strategic place. To be qualified as a green medium, these solvents have to meet different criteria such as availability, non-toxicity, biodegradability, recyclability, flammability, and low price among others. Up to now, the number of available green solvents are rather limited. Here we wish to discuss a new family of ionic fluids, so-called Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES), that are now rapidly emerging in the current literature. A DES is a fluid generally composed of two or three cheap and safe components that are capable of self-association, often through hydrogen bond interactions, to form a eutectic mixture with a melting point lower than that of each individual component. DESs are generally liquid at temperatures lower than 100 °C. These DESs exhibit similar physico-chemical properties to the traditionally used ionic liquids, while being much cheaper and environmentally friendlier. Owing to these remarkable advantages, DESs are now of growing interest in many fields of research. In this review, we report the major contributions of DESs in catalysis, organic synthesis, dissolution and extraction processes, electrochemistry and material chemistry. All works discussed in this review aim at demonstrating that DESs not only allow the design of eco-efficient processes but also open a straightforward access to new chemicals and materials.
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              Hydroxymethylfurfural, a versatile platform chemical made from renewable resources.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Journal of Chemistry
                Journal of Chemistry
                Hindawi Limited
                2090-9071
                2090-9063
                November 1 2021
                November 1 2021
                : 2021
                : 1-16
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Rare Animal and Economic Insects of the Mountainous Region, College of Biology and Environmental Engineering, Guiyang University, Guiyang 550005, China
                [2 ]State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Pesticide & Agricultural Bioengineering, Key Laboratory of Green Pesticide & Agricultural Bioengineering, Ministry of Education, State-Local Joint Laboratory for Comprehensive Utilization of Biomass, Center for Research & Development of Fine Chemicals, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China
                [3 ]School of Perfume and Aroma Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 200235, China
                Article
                10.1155/2021/9015481
                0daa0605-4f9f-489c-aa5c-1c0c3ccf6d1a
                © 2021

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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