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      Atmospheric CO 2 during the Mid-Piacenzian Warm Period and the M2 glaciation

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          Abstract

          The Piacenzian stage of the Pliocene (2.6 to 3.6 Ma) is the most recent past interval of sustained global warmth with mean global temperatures markedly higher (by ~2–3 °C) than today. Quantifying CO 2 levels during the mid-Piacenzian Warm Period (mPWP) provides a means, therefore, to deepen our understanding of Earth System behaviour in a warm climate state. Here we present a new high-resolution record of atmospheric CO 2 using the δ 11B-pH proxy from 3.35 to 3.15 million years ago (Ma) at a temporal resolution of 1 sample per 3–6 thousand years (kyrs). Our study interval covers both the coolest marine isotope stage of the mPWP, M2 (~3.3 Ma) and the transition into its warmest phase including interglacial KM5c (centered on ~3.205 Ma) which has a similar orbital configuration to present. We find that CO 2 ranged from \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${389}_{-8}^{+38}$$\end{document} ppm to \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${331}_{-11}^{+13},$$\end{document} ppm, with CO 2 during the KM5c interglacial being \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${371}_{-29}^{+32}\,$$\end{document} ppm (at 95% confidence). Our findings corroborate the idea that changes in atmospheric CO 2 levels played a distinct role in climate variability during the mPWP. They also facilitate ongoing data-model comparisons and suggest that, at present rates of human emissions, there will be more CO 2 in Earth’s atmosphere by 2025 than at any time in at least the last 3.3 million years.

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          Late Miocene global cooling and the rise of modern ecosystems

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            Glacial water mass geometry and the distribution of δ13C of ΣCO2in the western Atlantic Ocean

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              Effect of the formation of the Isthmus of Panama on Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                elwyn.de-la-vega@soton.ac.uk
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                9 July 2020
                9 July 2020
                2020
                : 10
                : 11002
                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9297, GRID grid.5491.9, School of Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre Southampton,Waterfront Campus Southampton, ; Southampton, SO14 3ZH UK
                Article
                67154
                10.1038/s41598-020-67154-8
                7347535
                32647351
                0ed65be6-4017-43c3-bf24-2ee81dc100ac
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 30 December 2019
                : 18 May 2020
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                Uncategorized
                climate sciences,ocean sciences
                Uncategorized
                climate sciences, ocean sciences

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