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      Gravid females of Cephalcia chuxiongica (Hymenoptera, Pamphiliidae) are attracted to egg-carrying needles of Pinus yunnanensis

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      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Cephalciachuxiongica Xiao is one of the most dangerous defoliators of Pinusyunnanensis and other pine species in Yunnan province, resulting in serious losses. Its distinguishing characteristics are the females’ aggregation oviposition and larvae’s aggregation feeding. In order to explore the mechanism of aggregation oviposition in this sawfly, preliminary olfactory bioassay was conducted in laboratory. In in-cage choice tests, on average vast majority gravid females selected the shoots that had been loaded and oviposited by a ‘pioneer’ female. In one-choice tests in laboratory by a Y-tube olfactometer, the gravid females were attracted by the odors of eggs-carrying shoots (PE), shoots with one delivering female and her eggs (PGE), needles’ extract (NE), and fresh eggs’ eluent (EL); the virgin females were attracted by odors of fresh needles (P), PE, PGE, and NE, but repelled by odors of virgin and gravid females. In two-choice tests, the odors were tested in pairs for gravid females. When compared with odors of gravid females (G) or P, gravid females showed significantly more tendency to odors of PE or PGE. When given odors EL vs. NE, gravid females preferred the odors of NE, but they did not make obvious selection between G vs. P, and PE vs. PGE. Based on the results, our conjectures were: (1) Delivery female, as a pioneer, can summon her conspecific gravid females to aggregate in the same pine shoot; (2) Pine needles’ odors were attractive for both the virgin and gravid females; (3) Gravid females could be attracted by odors released by the pioneer gravid females; (4) The olfactory sensation of the females may be changed by mating.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Behavioral response of Lygus hesperus to conspecifics and headspace volatiles of alfalfa in a Y-tube olfactometer.

          The western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, feeds and develops on a variety of weeds in the spring, with later generations moving to alfalfa and cotton where severe damage to reproductive structures can occur. A synthetic attractant for monitoring or mass-trapping L. hesperus, or the identification of potential attractants for natural enemies, would be useful tools for integrated pest management programs. Studies investigated the response of naive and experienced fifth-instar and adult L. hesperus to odors associated with conspecifics and alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. Fifth-instar L. hesperus responded to all plant/insect combinations, whereas female L. hesperus only responded preferentially to vegetative and flowering alfalfa where conspecifics had fed for 24-72 hr, and to vegetative alfalfa where conspecifics were added approximately 30 min before the test began. Males were not attracted to headspace volatiles from any of the alfalfa treatments. Analysis of headspace volatiles showed that (E)-2-hexanal, (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol, alpha-pinene, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, limonene, (Z)-ocimene, (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, and (E, E)-alpha-farnesene are emitted from both vegetative and flowering alfalfa. Indole and (3E, 7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene were only detected in flowering alfalfa. Damage to alfalfa by L. hesperus increased emissions of (Z)-ocimene, (E)-beta-ocimene, (E)-beta-caryophyllene, and (E, E)-alpha-farnesene, while beta-pinene, myrcene, methyl salicylate, and (3E, 7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene were only detected from damaged plants. Thus, individual or mixtures of these alfalfa volatiles may be useful as attractants for capturing nymphs and adult females of L. hesperus in the field.
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            Volatile profile differences and the associated Sirex noctilio activity in two host tree species in the Northeastern United States.

            Sirex noctilio females are known to be attracted to stem sections of stressed pine trees for oviposition. The volatile profiles and attractiveness of Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) and two chemotypes of Scots pine (P. sylvestris) were compared after stem injection with herbicide. In general, trap captures on herbicide-treated trees were higher than on controls. The high-carene chemotype of Scots pine captured the highest numbers of females, followed by the low-carene chemotype, and finally the Eastern white pine. Herbicide-treated trees of both species emitted larger quantities of volatiles than the controls. The herbicide treatment induced higher volatile emission rates in the Scots pine chemotypes than in white pine, although there was no difference between the two chemotypes. However, qualitative differences were found between the volatile profiles of the two species as well as between the two Scots pine chemotypes, which could account for the differential attractiveness of the species and chemotypes tested.
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              Analysis of volatiles from black pine (Pinus nigra): significance of wounding and egg deposition by a herbivorous sawfly.

              The composition of headspace volatiles of black pine (Pinus nigra) was analysed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It has been shown in a previous study that egg deposition of the sawfly Diprion pini on P. sylvestris induces a quantitative change of the pine volatile blend . Chrysonotomyia ruforum, an egg parasitoid of D. pini, is known to be attracted by volatiles from egg-carrying P. sylvestris, but not by odour from egg-laden P. nigra. Therefore, the present study focused on the question whether also P. nigra as another host plant of this sawfly responds to egg deposition by change of its volatile blend. The headspace of untreated, egg-carrying, and artificially wounded P. nigra twigs were compared. The artificial damage inflicted to the twigs mimicked the damage by the sawfly female prior to egg deposition. Thirty five mainly terpenoid compounds that were identified in more than 50% of the egg-carrying P. nigra twigs could also be detected in the headspace of untreated and artificially wounded twigs. Quantitative differences of the blends of volatiles from differently treated P. nigra twigs were compared by multivariate data analyses. PLS-DA (projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis) revealed that blends of volatiles from differently treated P. nigra differed significantly. When comparing volatiles from egg-carrying and artificially wounded P. nigra with respective P. sylvestris samples, qualitative and quantitative differences were detected. The differences in volatile composition of P. nigra and P. sylvestris are discussed with special respect to the egg parasitoid's response to odours of egg-carrying pine twigs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                August 27 2018
                August 27 2018
                : 65
                : 157-166
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.65.26341
                © 2018

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