Cephalciachuxiongica Xiao is one of the most dangerous defoliators of Pinusyunnanensis and other pine species in Yunnan province, resulting in serious losses. Its distinguishing characteristics are the females’ aggregation oviposition and larvae’s aggregation feeding. In order to explore the mechanism of aggregation oviposition in this sawfly, preliminary olfactory bioassay was conducted in laboratory. In in-cage choice tests, on average vast majority gravid females selected the shoots that had been loaded and oviposited by a ‘pioneer’ female. In one-choice tests in laboratory by a Y-tube olfactometer, the gravid females were attracted by the odors of eggs-carrying shoots (PE), shoots with one delivering female and her eggs (PGE), needles’ extract (NE), and fresh eggs’ eluent (EL); the virgin females were attracted by odors of fresh needles (P), PE, PGE, and NE, but repelled by odors of virgin and gravid females. In two-choice tests, the odors were tested in pairs for gravid females. When compared with odors of gravid females (G) or P, gravid females showed significantly more tendency to odors of PE or PGE. When given odors EL vs. NE, gravid females preferred the odors of NE, but they did not make obvious selection between G vs. P, and PE vs. PGE. Based on the results, our conjectures were: (1) Delivery female, as a pioneer, can summon her conspecific gravid females to aggregate in the same pine shoot; (2) Pine needles’ odors were attractive for both the virgin and gravid females; (3) Gravid females could be attracted by odors released by the pioneer gravid females; (4) The olfactory sensation of the females may be changed by mating.