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      MDR1 siRNA loaded hyaluronic acid-based CD44 targeted nanoparticle systems circumvent paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer

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          Abstract

          Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is an almost universal phenomenon in patients with ovarian cancer, and this severely limits the ultimate success of chemotherapy in the clinic. Overexpression of the MDR1 gene and corresponding P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is one of the best known MDR mechanisms. MDR1 siRNA based strategies were proposed to circumvent MDR, however, systemic, safe, and effective targeted delivery is still a major challenge. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) targeted hyaluronic acid (HA) based nanoparticle has been shown to successfully deliver chemotherapy agents or siRNAs into tumor cells. The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of HA-PEI/HA-PEG to deliver MDR1 siRNA and the efficacy of the combination of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/ MDR1 siRNA with paclitaxel to suppress growth of ovarian cancer. We observed that HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles can efficiently deliver MDR1 siRNA into MDR ovarian cancer cells, resulting in down-regulation of MDR1 and Pgp expression. Administration of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/ MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles followed by paclitaxel treatment induced a significant inhibitory effect on the tumor growth, decreased Pgp expression and increased apoptosis in MDR ovarian cancer mice model. Our findings suggest that CD44 targeted HA-PEI/HA-PEG/ MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles can serve as a therapeutic tool with great potentials to circumvent MDR in ovarian cancer.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction activates stem cell marker Nanog, Stat-3-mediated MDR1 gene expression, and ankyrin-regulated multidrug efflux in breast and ovarian tumor cells.

          Hyaluronan (HA) is a major glycosaminoglycan in the extracellular matrix whose expression is tightly linked to multidrug resistance and tumor progression. In this study we investigated HA-induced interaction between CD44 (a HA receptor) and Nanog (an embryonic stem cell transcription factor) in both human breast tumor cells (MCF-7 cells) and human ovarian tumor cells (SK-OV-3.ipl cells). Using a specific primer pair to amplify Nanog by reverse transcriptase-PCR, we detected the expression of Nanog transcript in both tumor cell lines. In addition, our results reveal that HA binding to these tumor cells promotes Nanog protein association with CD44 followed by Nanog activation and the expression of pluripotent stem cell regulators (e.g. Rex1 and Sox2). Nanog also forms a complex with the "signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3" (Stat-3) in the nucleus leading to Stat-3-specific transcriptional activation and multidrug transporter, MDR1 (P-glycoprotein) gene expression. Furthermore, we observed that HA-CD44 interaction induces ankyrin (a cytoskeletal protein) binding to MDR1 resulting in the efflux of chemotherapeutic drugs (e.g. doxorubicin and paclitaxel (Taxol)) and chemoresistance in these tumor cells. Overexpression of Nanog by transfecting tumor cells with Nanog cDNA stimulates Stat-3 transcriptional activation, MDR1 overexpression, and multidrug resistance. Down regulation of Nanog signaling or ankyrin function (by transfecting tumor cells with Nanog small interfering RNA or ankyrin repeat domain cDNA) not only blocks HA/CD44-mediated tumor cell behaviors but also enhances chemosensitivity. Taken together, these findings suggest that targeting HA/CD44-mediated Nanog-Stat-3 signaling pathways and ankyrin/cytoskeleton function may represent a novel approach to overcome chemotherapy resistance in some breast and ovarian tumor cells displaying stem cell marker properties during tumor progression.
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            Abraxane, a novel Cremophor-free, albumin-bound particle form of paclitaxel for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

            Abraxane (ABI-007) is a novel 130-nm, albumin-bound (nab) particle form of paclitaxel designed to utilize endogenous albumin pathways to increase intratumor concentrations of the active drug. This multicenter phase II study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Abraxane 260 mg/m2 every 3 weeks in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with histologically confirmed, measurable NSCLC received Abraxane as first-line therapy. Forty-three patients were enrolled. The overall response rate was 16%; the disease control rate was 49%. Median time to progression was 6 months, and median survival was 11 months. The probability of not having progressed by 1 year was 13%; the probability of surviving 1 year was 45%. No severe hypersensitivity reactions were reported despite the lack of premedication; 95% of patients were treated without dose reduction. Two patients (5%) discontinued therapy because of treatment-related toxicities (neuropathy, fatigue [1 each]). No grade 4 treatment-related toxicity occurred. Abraxane 260 mg/m2 administered IV over 30 min without premedication was well tolerated. Significant tumor responses and prolonged disease control were documented in this group of patients with NSCLC. Exploration of higher doses of ABI-007 alone and in combination with other drugs active in NSCLC is warranted.
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              Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 pathway activation in drug-resistant ovarian cancer.

              One of the major obstacles in the treatment of ovarian cancer is the development of multidrug resistance. Recent evidence shows that high-grade ovarian cancer often shows activation of the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) pathway with subsequent transcription of genes that support tumor growth and survival. Less studied is the role of the Stat3 pathway in acquired drug resistance. There is no information on Stat3 expression in chemotherapy naïve ovarian cancer as compared with tumors collected later in the natural history of the disease. To further clarify the significance of Stat3 activation in ovarian cancer, here we investigated the Stat3 expression and activation in ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer multidrug resistance cell lines. Western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, luciferase assays, ELISA assay, and real-time reverse transcription-PCR determined interleukin-6 and Stat3 pathway expression and activation in cell lines. Stat3 expression in ovarian cancer tissue microarray was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Activated (phosphorylated) Stat3 is overexpressed in most paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Inhibition of Stat3 activation results in significant decreases in paclitaxel resistance and enhanced apoptosis. Drug-resistant recurrent tumors have significantly greater phosphorylated Stat3 (pStat3) expression as compared with matched primary tumors. Tumors with associated inflammatory cell infiltrates also have a higher proportion of cells staining intensely for nuclear phosphorylated Stat3 as compared with tumors without inflammatory infiltrates, consistent with paracrine activation of the Stat3 pathway by immune-mediated cytokines. These data support the hypothesis that interruption of Stat3 signaling could reverse resistance to paclitaxel and perhaps other chemotherapy agents in human cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                17 February 2015
                2015
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Sarcoma Biology Laboratory, Center for Sarcoma and Connective Tissue Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School , Boston, MA 02114
                [2 ]Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University , Zhengzhou 450052, Henan Province, China
                [3 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Northeastern University , Boston, MA 02114
                Author notes
                [*]

                Current address: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201.

                Article
                srep08509
                10.1038/srep08509
                4330541
                25687880
                Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder in order to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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