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      Establishment of TSH β real-time monitoring system in mammalian photoperiodism

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          Organisms have seasonal physiological changes in response to day length. Long-day stimulation induces thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit ( TSHβ) in the pars tuberalis (PT), which mediates photoperiodic reactions like day-length measurement and physiological adaptation. However, the mechanism of TSHβ induction for day-length measurement is largely unknown. To screen candidate upstream molecules of TSHβ, which convey light information to the PT, we generated Luciferase knock-in mice, which quantitatively report the dynamics of TSHβ expression. We cultured brain slices containing the PT region from adult and neonatal mice and measured the bioluminescence activities from each slice over several days. A decrease in the bioluminescence activities was observed after melatonin treatment in adult and neonatal slices. These observations indicate that the experimental system possesses responsiveness of the TSHβ expression to melatonin. Thus, we concluded that our experimental system monitors TSHβ expression dynamics in response to external stimuli.

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          Seasonal changes in vertebrate immune activity: mediation by physiological trade-offs.

          Animals living in temporally dynamic environments experience variation in resource availability, climate and threat of infection over the course of the year. Thus, to survive and reproduce successfully, these organisms must allocate resources among competing physiological systems in such a way as to maximize fitness in changing environments. Here, we review evidence supporting the hypothesis that physiological trade-offs, particularly those between the reproductive and immune systems, mediate part of the seasonal changes detected in the immune defences of many vertebrates. Abundant recent work has detected significant energetic and nutritional costs of immune defence. Sometimes these physiological costs are sufficiently large to affect fitness (e.g. reproductive output, growth or survival), indicating that selection for appropriate allocation strategies probably occurred in the past. Because hormones often orchestrate allocations among physiological systems, the endocrine mediators of seasonal changes in immune activity are discussed. Many hormones, including melatonin, glucocorticoids and androgens have extensive and consistent effects on the immune system, and they change in systematic fashions over the year. Finally, a modified framework within which to conduct future studies in ecological immunology is proposed, viz. a heightened appreciation of the complex but intelligible nature of the vertebrate immune system. Although other factors besides trade-offs undoubtedly influence seasonal variation in immune defence in animals, a growing literature supports a role for physiological trade-offs and the fitness consequences they sometimes produce.
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            Thyrotrophin in the pars tuberalis triggers photoperiodic response.

            Molecular mechanisms regulating animal seasonal breeding in response to changing photoperiod are not well understood. Rapid induction of gene expression of thyroid-hormone-activating enzyme (type 2 deiodinase, DIO2) in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is the earliest event yet recorded in the photoperiodic signal transduction pathway. Here we show cascades of gene expression in the quail MBH associated with the initiation of photoinduced secretion of luteinizing hormone. We identified two waves of gene expression. The first was initiated about 14 h after dawn of the first long day and included increased thyrotrophin (TSH) beta-subunit expression in the pars tuberalis; the second occurred approximately 4 h later and included increased expression of DIO2. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of TSH to short-day quail stimulated gonadal growth and expression of DIO2 which was shown to be mediated through a TSH receptor-cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling pathway. Increased TSH in the pars tuberalis therefore seems to trigger long-day photoinduced seasonal breeding.
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              Light-induced resetting of a mammalian circadian clock is associated with rapid induction of the mPer1 transcript.

              To understand how light might entrain a mammalian circadian clock, we examined the effects of light on mPer1, a sequence homolog of Drosophila per, that exhibits robust rhythmic expression in the SCN. mPer1 is rapidly induced by short duration exposure to light at levels sufficient to reset the clock, and dose-response curves reveal that mPer1 induction shows both reciprocity and a strong correlation with phase shifting of the overt rhythm. Thus, in both the phasing of dark expression and the response to light mPer1 is most similar to the Neurospora clock gene frq. Within the SCN there appears to be localization of the induction phenomenon, consistent with the localization of both light-sensitive and light-insensitive oscillators in this circadian center.

                Author and article information

                Genes Cells
                Genes Cells
                Genes to Cells
                Blackwell Publishing Ltd
                July 2013
                12 June 2013
                : 18
                : 7
                : 575-588
                [1 ]Laboratory for Systems Biology, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan
                [2 ]Graduate School of Science, Osaka University 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043, Japan
                [3 ]Laboratory for Synthetic Biology, RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0047, Japan
                [4 ]Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine 377-2 Ohno-Higashi, Osakasayama City, Osaka, 589-8511, Japan
                [5 ]Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University Yamadaoka 1-3, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan
                [6 ]Laboratory for Animal Resources and Genetic Engineering, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan
                [7 ]Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University 350 Mine-machi, Utsunomiya, Tochigi, 321-8505, Japan
                [8 ]Center for Bioscience Research & Education (C-Bio), Utsunomiya University 350 Mine-machi, Utsunomiya, Tochigi, 321-8505, Japan
                [9 ]Utsunomiya University Center for Optical Research & Education (CORE) 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya, Tochigi, 321-8585, Japan
                [10 ]Department of Systems Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan
                Author notes

                Communicated by: Ryoichiro Kageyama


                Present address: Laboratory for Developmental Morphogeometry, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe 650-0047, Japan.


                Present address: Cell Analysis Center, Scientific Affairs, Sysmex Corporation, 1-3-2 Murotani, Nishi-ku, Kobe 658-2241, Japan.

                Genes to Cells © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

                Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Creative Commons Deed, Attribution 2.5, which does not permit commercial exploitation.

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