Approximately one third of patients with congestive heart failure and systolic dysfunction have an intraventricular conduction delay that is manifested as a QRS duration >120 ms. An intraventricular conduction delay adversely affects ventricular performance by causing dyssynchrony in ventricular activation. When ventricular dyssynchrony is present, simultaneous left and right ventricular pacing or cardiac resynchronization therapy can improve ventricular synchrony. This can lead to an improvement in hemodynamics, ventricular remodeling, mitral regurgitation, exercise capacity and quality of life. Candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy include patients with advanced congestive heart failure that is refractory to medical therapy, a QRS duration >130 ms, left ventricular ejection fraction <0.35 and sinus rhythm. Because patients who are candidates for biventricular pacing are at high risk of sudden death, they should be considered for implantation of a biventricular pacing device that also provides defibrillation therapy. This paper reviews biventricular pacing for congestive heart failure, including results of acute hemodynamic studies and randomized clinical trials, patient and device selection, and procedural issues.