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      Estimated HIV Incidence in the United States, 2006–2009

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          Abstract

          Background

          The estimated number of new HIV infections in the United States reflects the leading edge of the epidemic. Previously, CDC estimated HIV incidence in the United States in 2006 as 56,300 (95% CI: 48,200–64,500). We updated the 2006 estimate and calculated incidence for 2007–2009 using improved methodology.

          Methodology

          We estimated incidence using incidence surveillance data from 16 states and 2 cities and a modification of our previously described stratified extrapolation method based on a sample survey approach with multiple imputation, stratification, and extrapolation to account for missing data and heterogeneity of HIV testing behavior among population groups.

          Principal Findings

          Estimated HIV incidence among persons aged 13 years and older was 48,600 (95% CI: 42,400–54,700) in 2006, 56,000 (95% CI: 49,100–62,900) in 2007, 47,800 (95% CI: 41,800–53,800) in 2008 and 48,100 (95% CI: 42,200–54,000) in 2009. From 2006 to 2009 incidence did not change significantly overall or among specific race/ethnicity or risk groups. However, there was a 21% (95% CI:1.9%–39.8%; p = 0.017) increase in incidence for people aged 13–29 years, driven by a 34% (95% CI: 8.4%–60.4%) increase in young men who have sex with men (MSM). There was a 48% increase among young black/African American MSM (12.3%–83.0%; p<0.001). Among people aged 13–29, only MSM experienced significant increases in incidence, and among 13–29 year-old MSM, incidence increased significantly among young, black/African American MSM. In 2009, MSM accounted for 61% of new infections, heterosexual contact 27%, injection drug use (IDU) 9%, and MSM/IDU 3%.

          Conclusions/Significance

          Overall, HIV incidence in the United States was relatively stable 2006–2009; however, among young MSM, particularly black/African American MSM, incidence increased. HIV continues to be a major public health burden, disproportionately affecting several populations in the United States, especially MSM and racial and ethnic minorities. Expanded, improved, and targeted prevention is necessary to reduce HIV incidence.

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          Most cited references32

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          Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings.

          These recommendations for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing are intended for all health-care providers in the public and private sectors, including those working in hospital emergency departments, urgent care clinics, inpatient services, substance abuse treatment clinics, public health clinics, community clinics, correctional health-care facilities, and primary care settings. The recommendations address HIV testing in health-care settings only. They do not modify existing guidelines concerning HIV counseling, testing, and referral for persons at high risk for HIV who seek or receive HIV testing in nonclinical settings (e.g., community-based organizations, outreach settings, or mobile vans). The objectives of these recommendations are to increase HIV screening of patients, including pregnant women, in health-care settings; foster earlier detection of HIV infection; identify and counsel persons with unrecognized HIV infection and link them to clinical and prevention services; and further reduce perinatal transmission of HIV in the United States. These revised recommendations update previous recommendations for HIV testing in health-care settings and for screening of pregnant women (CDC. Recommendations for HIV testing services for inpatients and outpatients in acute-care hospital settings. MMWR 1993;42[No. RR-2]:1-10; CDC. Revised guidelines for HIV counseling, testing, and referral. MMWR 2001;50[No. RR-19]:1-62; and CDC. Revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. MMWR 2001;50[No. RR-19]:63-85). Major revisions from previously published guidelines are as follows: For patients in all health-care settings HIV screening is recommended for patients in all health-care settings after the patient is notified that testing will be performed unless the patient declines (opt-out screening). Persons at high risk for HIV infection should be screened for HIV at least annually. Separate written consent for HIV testing should not be required; general consent for medical care should be considered sufficient to encompass consent for HIV testing. Prevention counseling should not be required with HIV diagnostic testing or as part of HIV screening programs in health-care settings. For pregnant women HIV screening should be included in the routine panel of prenatal screening tests for all pregnant women. HIV screening is recommended after the patient is notified that testing will be performed unless the patient declines (opt-out screening). Separate written consent for HIV testing should not be required; general consent for medical care should be considered sufficient to encompass consent for HIV testing. Repeat screening in the third trimester is recommended in certain jurisdictions with elevated rates of HIV infection among pregnant women.
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            Estimation of HIV incidence in the United States.

            Incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States has not been directly measured. New assays that differentiate recent vs long-standing HIV infections allow improved estimation of HIV incidence. To estimate HIV incidence in the United States. Remnant diagnostic serum specimens from patients 13 years or older and newly diagnosed with HIV during 2006 in 22 states were tested with the BED HIV-1 capture enzyme immunoassay to classify infections as recent or long-standing. Information on HIV cases was reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through June 2007. Incidence of HIV in the 22 states during 2006 was estimated using a statistical approach with adjustment for testing frequency and extrapolated to the United States. Results were corroborated with back-calculation of HIV incidence for 1977-2006 based on HIV diagnoses from 40 states and AIDS incidence from 50 states and the District of Columbia. Estimated HIV incidence. An estimated 39,400 persons were diagnosed with HIV in 2006 in the 22 states. Of 6864 diagnostic specimens tested using the BED assay, 2133 (31%) were classified as recent infections. Based on extrapolations from these data, the estimated number of new infections for the United States in 2006 was 56,300 (95% confidence interval [CI], 48,200-64,500); the estimated incidence rate was 22.8 per 100,000 population (95% CI, 19.5-26.1). Forty-five percent of infections were among black individuals and 53% among men who have sex with men. The back-calculation (n = 1.230 million HIV/AIDS cases reported by the end of 2006) yielded an estimate of 55,400 (95% CI, 50,000-60,800) new infections per year for 2003-2006 and indicated that HIV incidence increased in the mid-1990s, then slightly declined after 1999 and has been stable thereafter. This study provides the first direct estimates of HIV incidence in the United States using laboratory technologies previously implemented only in clinic-based settings. New HIV infections in the United States remain concentrated among men who have sex with men and among black individuals.
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              Quantitative detection of increasing HIV type 1 antibodies after seroconversion: a simple assay for detecting recent HIV infection and estimating incidence.

              We have devised a simple enzyme immunoassay (EIA) that detects increasing levels of anti-HIV IgG after seroconversion and can be used for detecting recent HIV-1 infection. Use of a branched peptide that included gp41 immunodominant sequences from HIV-1 subtypes B, E, and D allowed similar detection of HIV-specific antibodies among various subtypes. Because of the competitive nature of the capture EIA, a gradual increase in the proportion of HIV-1-specific IgG in total IgG was observed for 2 years after seroconversion. This was in contrast to results obtained with the conventional EIA using the same antigen in solid phase, which plateaus soon after seroconversion. The assay was used to test 622 longitudinal specimens from 139 incident infections in the United States (subtype B) and in Thailand (subtypes B and E). The assay was also performed with an additional 8 M urea incubation step to assess the contribution of high-avidity antibodies. Normalized optical density (OD-n) was calculated (ODspecimen/ODcalibrator), using a calibrator specimen. An incremental analysis indicated that a cutoff of 1.0 OD-n and a seroconversion period of 160 days offered the best combination of sensitivity and specificity for classifying incident or long-term infections. The urea step increased the seroconversion period to 180 days with similar sensitivity and specificity. Separate analysis of B and E subtype specimens yielded the same optimal OD-n threshold and similar seroconversion periods. The assay was further validated in African specimens (subtypes A, C, and D) where the observed incidence was within 10% of the expected incidence. This assay should be useful for detecting recent HIV-1 infection and for estimating incidence among diverse HIV-1 subtypes worldwide.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2011
                3 August 2011
                : 6
                : 8
                : e17502
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
                [2 ]The Ginn Group, Peachtree City, Georgia, United States of America
                National University of Singapore, Singapore
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: JP RS HIH. Analyzed the data: JP RS RZ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JP RS AH RZ TG FW LSL QA HIH. Wrote the paper: JP RS. Interpretation of data: JP RS AH JM AL HIH.

                ¶ Membership of the HIV Incidence Surveillance Group is provided in the Acknowledgments.

                Article
                PONE-D-10-02530
                10.1371/journal.pone.0017502
                3149556
                21826193
                1293a9bf-89a5-4f1d-a513-9dc6ce13a3a0
                This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
                History
                : 24 September 2010
                : 30 June 2011
                Page count
                Pages: 13
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology
                Population Biology
                Epidemiology
                Infectious Disease Epidemiology
                Medicine
                Epidemiology
                Infectious Disease Epidemiology
                Infectious Diseases
                Viral Diseases
                HIV
                HIV epidemiology
                Non-Clinical Medicine
                Health Care Policy
                Health Statistics
                Obstetrics and Gynecology
                Genitourinary Infections
                HIV
                Public Health
                Urology
                Genitourinary Infections
                HIV

                Uncategorized
                Uncategorized

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