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      Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin on Corneal Neovascularization in vitro and in vivo


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          Purpose: To examine the effect of curcumin on the proliferation and the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and on the corneal neovascularization in the corneal alkaline burn rat model. Methods: HUVEC proliferation, migration, and apoptosis were examined after treatment with various concentrations of curcumin. The effect of curcumin on the activation of nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-ĸB) was measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) in vivo. Corneal neovascularization was induced in vivo by an alkaline burn of the cornea in Sprague-Dawley rats. After topical drug treatments with curcumin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was evaluated in the corneal tissue by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and by immunohistochemistry. Corneal neovascularization was evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Results: Curcumin at a concentration of 40 µmol/l for 24 h significantly inhibited the growth of HUVECs. The Boyden microchamber assay showed that curcumin dramatically inhibited the migration of HUVECs at a concentration of 40 µmol/l. When TUNEL assays were performed, the number of apoptotic cells increased after treated with curcumin. The EMSA revealed that curcumin inhibits the activation of NF-ĸB in HUVECs. The expression of VEGF in the corneal tissues was inhibited by curcumin on days 7 and 14 after alkaline burn. Conclusions: Curcumin may be useful as an angiogenic inhibitor in the treatment of corneal diseases that show neovascularization.

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          Vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor expression in a mouse model of retinal neovascularization.

          Neovascular diseases of the retina are a major cause of blindness worldwide. Hypoxia is thought to be a common precursor to neovascularization in many retinal diseases, but the factors involved in the hypoxic neovascular response have not been fully identified. To investigate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor (VEGF/VPF) in retinal neovascularization, the expression of VEGF/VPF mRNA and protein were studied in a mouse model of proliferative retinopathy. RNA (Northern) blot analysis revealed that retinal VEGF/VPF mRNA expression increased 3-fold between 6 and 12 hr of relative retinal hypoxia and remained elevated during the development of neovascularization. In situ hybridization localized VEGF/VPF mRNA to cells bodies in the inner nuclear layer of the retina. Immunohistochemical confocal microscopy demonstrated that VEGF/VPF protein levels increase with a time course similar to that of the mRNA. The cells in the inner nuclear layer of the retina that produce VEGF/VPF were identified morphologically as Müller cells. These data suggest that VEGF/VPF expression in the retina plays a central role in the development of retinal ischemia-induced ocular neovascularization.
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            Down-regulation of notch-1 inhibits invasion by inactivation of nuclear factor-kappaB, vascular endothelial growth factor, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in pancreatic cancer cells.

            Notch signaling plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of human malignancies but the precise role and mechanism of Notch-1 for tumor invasion remains unclear. In our earlier report, we showed that down-regulation of Notch-1 reduced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) DNA-binding activity and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression. Because NF-kappaB, VEGF, and MMPs are critically involved in the processes of tumor cell invasion and metastasis, we investigated the role and mechanism(s) by which Notch-1 down-regulation (using molecular approaches) may lead to the down-regulation of NF-kappaB, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and MMP-9, thereby inhibiting invasion of pancreatic cancer cells through Matrigel. We found that the down-regulation of Notch-1 by small interfering RNA decreased cell invasion, whereas Notch-1 overexpression by cDNA transfection led to increased tumor cell invasion. Consistent with these results, we found that the down-regulation of Notch-1 reduced NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity and VEGF expression. Down-regulation of Notch-1 also decreased not only MMP-9 mRNA and its protein expression but also inactivated the pro-MMP-9 protein to its active form. Taken together, we conclude that the down-regulation of Notch-1 could be an effective approach for the down-regulation and inactivation of NF-kappaB and its target genes, such as MMP-9 and VEGF expression, resulting in the inhibition of invasion and metastasis.
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              Is Open Access

              Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.

              There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects; and also inhibits carcinogenesis and cancer growth. In vivo, there are experiments showing the anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts of C. longa L. by parenteral and oral application in animal models. In this present work we make an overview of the pharmacological activities of C. longa L., showing its importance.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                May 2008
                22 May 2008
                : 222
                : 3
                : 178-186
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology and bDepartment of Otolaryngology, Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
                126081 Ophthalmologica 2008;222:178–186
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 14 June 2007
                : 18 June 2007
                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 42, Pages: 9
                Original Paper

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Vascular endothelial growth factor,Neovascularization,Alkaline burn,Curcumin,Nuclear factor-ĸB


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