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      Interaction between Glucose and Lipid Metabolism: More than Diabetic Dyslipidemia

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          Abstract

          Glucose and lipid metabolism are linked to each other in many ways. The most important clinical manifestation of this interaction is diabetic dyslipidemia, characterized by elevated triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and predominance of small-dense LDL particles. However, in the last decade we have learned that the interaction is much more complex. Hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C cannot only be the consequence but also the cause of a disturbed glucose metabolism. Furthermore, it is now well established that statins are associated with a small but significant increase in the risk for new onset diabetes. The underlying mechanisms are not completely understood but modulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG CoA)-reductase may play a central role as genetic data indicate that mutations resulting in lower HMG CoA-reductase activity are also associated with obesity, higher glucose concentrations and diabetes. Very interestingly, this statin induced increased risk for new onset type 2 diabetes is not detectable in subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia. Furthermore, patients with familial hypercholesterolemia seem to have a lower risk for type 2 diabetes, a phenomenon which seems to be dose-dependent (the higher the low density lipoprotein cholesterol, the lower the risk). Whether there is also an interaction between lipoprotein(a) and diabetes is still a matter of debate.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Overproduction of very low-density lipoproteins is the hallmark of the dyslipidemia in the metabolic syndrome.

          Insulin resistance is a key feature of the metabolic syndrome and often progresses to type 2 diabetes. Both insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are characterized by dyslipidemia, which is an important and common risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Diabetic dyslipidemia is a cluster of potentially atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities that are metabolically interrelated. Recent evidence suggests that a fundamental defect is an overproduction of large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, which initiates a sequence of lipoprotein changes, resulting in higher levels of remnant particles, smaller LDL, and lower levels of high-density liporotein (HDL) cholesterol. These atherogenic lipid abnormalities precede the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes by several years, and it is thus important to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the overproduction of large VLDL particles. Here, we review the pathophysiology of VLDL biosynthesis and metabolism in the metabolic syndrome. We also review recent research investigating the relation between hepatic accumulation of lipids and insulin resistance, and sources of fatty acids for liver fat and VLDL biosynthesis. Finally, we briefly discuss current treatments for lipid management of dyslipidemia and potential future therapeutic targets.
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            ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias The Task Force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS).

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              Statin use and risk of diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative.

              This study investigates whether the incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with statin use among postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). The WHI recruited 161,808 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years at 40 clinical centers across the United States from 1993 to 1998 with ongoing follow-up. The current analysis includes data through 2005. Statin use was captured at enrollment and year 3. Incident DM status was determined annually from enrollment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of DM by statin use, with adjustments for propensity score and other potential confounding factors. Subgroup analyses by race/ethnicity, obesity status, and age group were conducted to uncover effect modification. This investigation included 153,840 women without DM and no missing data at baseline. At baseline, 7.04% reported taking statin medication. There were 10,242 incident cases of self-reported DM over 1,004,466 person-years of follow-up. Statin use at baseline was associated with an increased risk of DM (hazard ratio [HR], 1.71; 95% CI, 1.61-1.83). This association remained after adjusting for other potential confounders (multivariate-adjusted HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.38-1.59) and was observed for all types of statin medications. Subset analyses evaluating the association of self-reported DM with longitudinal measures of statin use in 125,575 women confirmed these findings. Statin medication use in postmenopausal women is associated with an increased risk for DM. This may be a medication class effect. Further study by statin type and dose may reveal varying risk levels for new-onset DM in this population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Metab J
                Diabetes Metab J
                DMJ
                Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
                Korean Diabetes Association
                2233-6079
                2233-6087
                October 2015
                22 October 2015
                : 39
                : 5
                : 353-362
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine 2-Grosshadern, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Klaus G. Parhofer. Department of Medicine 2-Grosshadern, University of Munich, Marchioninistraße 15, 81377 Munich, Germany. klaus.parhofer@ 123456med.uni-muenchen.de
                Article
                10.4093/dmj.2015.39.5.353
                4641964
                13437f5a-cc47-468a-94f8-6195c50b9a87
                Copyright © 2015 Korean Diabetes Association

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review
                Clinical Care/Education

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