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      Advances in Female Germ Cell Induction from Pluripotent Stem Cells

      , ,

      Stem Cells International

      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          Germ cells are capable of maintaining species continuity through passing genetic and epigenetic information across generations. Female germ cells mainly develop during the embryonic stage and pass through subsequent developmental stages including primordial germ cells, oogonia, and oocyte. However, due to the limitation of using early human embryos as in vivo research model, in vitro research models are needed to reveal the early developmental process and related mechanisms of female germ cells. After birth, the number of follicles gradually decreases with age. Various conditions which damage ovarian functions would cause premature ovarian failure. Alternative treatments to solve these problems need to be investigated. Germ cell differentiation from pluripotent stem cells in vitro can simulate early embryonic development of female germ cells and clarify unresolved issues during the development process. In addition, pluripotent stem cells could potentially provide promising applications for female fertility preservation after proper in vitro differentiation. Mouse female germ cells have been successfully reconstructed in vitro and delivered to live offspring. However, the derivation of functional human female germ cells has not been fully achieved due to technical limitations and ethical issues. To provide an updated and comprehensive information, this review centers on the major studies on the differentiation of mouse and human female germ cells from pluripotent stem cells and provides references to further studies of developmental mechanisms and potential therapeutic applications of female germ cells.

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          Most cited references 90

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          Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors.

          Differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state by transfer of nuclear contents into oocytes or by fusion with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Little is known about factors that induce this reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic or adult fibroblasts by introducing four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4, under ES cell culture conditions. Unexpectedly, Nanog was dispensable. These cells, which we designated iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells, exhibit the morphology and growth properties of ES cells and express ES cell marker genes. Subcutaneous transplantation of iPS cells into nude mice resulted in tumors containing a variety of tissues from all three germ layers. Following injection into blastocysts, iPS cells contributed to mouse embryonic development. These data demonstrate that pluripotent stem cells can be directly generated from fibroblast cultures by the addition of only a few defined factors.
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            Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors.

            Successful reprogramming of differentiated human somatic cells into a pluripotent state would allow creation of patient- and disease-specific stem cells. We previously reported generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, capable of germline transmission, from mouse somatic cells by transduction of four defined transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate the generation of iPS cells from adult human dermal fibroblasts with the same four factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Human iPS cells were similar to human embryonic stem (ES) cells in morphology, proliferation, surface antigens, gene expression, epigenetic status of pluripotent cell-specific genes, and telomerase activity. Furthermore, these cells could differentiate into cell types of the three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas. These findings demonstrate that iPS cells can be generated from adult human fibroblasts.
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              Naive and primed pluripotent states.

              After maternal predetermination gives way to zygotic regulation, a ground state is established within the mammalian embryo. This tabula rasa for embryogenesis is present only transiently in the preimplantation epiblast. Here, we consider how unrestricted cells are first generated and then prepared for lineage commitment. We propose that two phases of pluripotency can be defined: naive and primed. This distinction extends to pluripotent stem cells derived from embryos or by molecular reprogramming ex vivo.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Stem Cells Int
                Stem Cells Int
                SCI
                Stem Cells International
                Hindawi
                1687-966X
                1687-9678
                2021
                13 January 2021
                : 2021
                Affiliations
                Department of Central Laboratory, Shanghai Children's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1400 Beijing Road West, Shanghai 200040, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Li-Ping Liu

                Article
                10.1155/2021/8849230
                7822693
                33510796
                Copyright © 2021 Maisumu Gulimiheranmu et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center for Translational Medicine
                Award ID: TM201827
                Funded by: Shanghai Jiao Tong University
                Award ID: YG2016MS32
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81370700
                Funded by: Shanghai Municipal Health Commission
                Award ID: 201940204
                Categories
                Review Article

                Molecular medicine

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